Unpredicted Trajectories: The Relationship Between Race/Ethnicity, Pregnancy During Adolescence, and Young Women's Outcomes
ABSTRACT Adolescents who become pregnant in the United States are at higher risk for a myriad of health concerns. One would predict even more adverse health outcomes among pregnant adolescents who are from disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups; however, previous studies indirectly suggest the opposite. This study examines whether adolescents from racial/ethnic minority groups are less affected by adolescent pregnancy compared to white adolescents.
We used data from 1,867 adolescents participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1995-2001). Our predictor variable was self-reported race/ethnicity. Self-perception of health, educational attainment, and public assistance use in young adulthood were outcome measures. We conducted weighted multivariate logistic regressions and analyzed how adolescent pregnancy modified the relationship between our predictor and outcome variables.
Black and American Indian young women had significantly higher odds than white young women of receiving public assistance (OR, 2.6 and 2.7, respectively; p <.01) and even higher odds if ever pregnant in adolescence (OR, 4.2 and 19.0, respectively; p = .03). White young women had significantly lower odds of high educational attainment if they had a live birth in adolescence as compared to those who had not (OR, 0.1; CI = 0.1-0.4).
These findings support studies that found adolescent pregnancy increases the risk of public assistance use and low educational attainment. The study shows that, for educational attainment, black young women who become pregnant may not be as disadvantaged as their peers, whereas white young women who become pregnant are more disadvantaged.
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ABSTRACT: Teen pregnancy and parenting remain an important public health issue in the United States and the world, and many children live with their adolescent parents alone or as part of an extended family. A significant proportion of teen parents reside with their family of origin, significantly affecting the multigenerational family structure. Repeated births to teen parents are also common. This clinical report updates a previous policy statement on care of the adolescent parent and their children and addresses medical and psychosocial risks specific to this population. Challenges unique to teen parents and their children are reviewed, along with suggestions for the pediatrician on models for intervention and care.PEDIATRICS 11/2012; 130(6). DOI:10.1542/peds.2012-2879 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimsTo examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents.Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults.DesignCross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994–1995; follow-up, 2007–2008).Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data were taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race.ResultsAgreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination.Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programmes that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism.Journal of Advanced Nursing 07/2014; 71(1). DOI:10.1111/jan.12481 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Study Objective To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Design Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. Setting United States. Participants 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7-12 in 1994-95 and followed up in 2007-2008. Main Outcome Measures Birthweight and gestational age. Results For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, P < .05) and gestational age (0.75 weeks, P < .01), while higher parental disapproval of having sex (adjusted beta 0.15 kg, P < .05) were associated with higher birthweight. For non-Black adolescents, a moderate amount of discussion of birth control was associated with higher birthweight (0.19 kg, P < .01 and lower child-perceived parental disapproval of having sex was associated with higher birthweight (0.08 kg, P < .05) and gestational age (0.37 weeks, P < .05). Higher parental control was associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and a greater likelihood of early prenatal care. Conclusion Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents.Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 10/2014; 27(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jpag.2013.12.005 · 1.81 Impact Factor