Visual evoked potentials and MBP gene expression imply endogenous myelin repair in adult rat optic nerve and chiasm following local lysolecithin induced demyelination.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients may suffer from optic disturbances. Toxin-induced demyelinations have frequently been developed to investigate the cellular and structural aspects of demyelination and remyelination processes, separately. The present study describes functional consequence of lysolecithin (LPC)-induced lesion in the adult rat optic nerves and chiasm by recording the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from the visual cortex and its correlation with myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in lesion site. Records of VEP were obtained at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days post-injection. We observed that the VEPs generated by light stimuli progressively changed in both amplitude and latency after the lesion as well as in comparison with those generated in control animals. These observations were confirmed through measurement of mRNA expression level for MBP which is one of the important genes expressed in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. The level of MBP mRNAs in demyelinated chiasm and optic nerves decreased following lysolecithin injection with its least value on day 7, and then it increased to the control level 14 days post-lesion. However, it continued to increase even after that and reached a maximum level 28 days post lesion. Results of the present paper show that, LPC injection in the chiasm share functional and molecular alterations which are found in demyelinating disorders in both the optic nerves and chiasm and also these alterations were coming back to level of control animal on 28 days post lesion, which is typically seen in myelin repair process. The present paper provides new insights into the experimental toxin-induced models that may be useful for evaluating the functional recovery of demyelinated optic nerves and chiasm following various repairing strategies. It also seems to be useful for studying the protective or remyelinating effects of different therapies in e.g. optic apparatus which is more affected by MS.
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ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the remyelinating potential of mature oligodendrocytes in vivo, we have developed a model of demyelination in the adult rat spinal cord in which some oligodendrocytes survive demyelination. A single intraspinal injection of complement proteins plus antibodies to galactocerebroside (the major myelin sphingolipid) resulted in demyelination followed by oligodendrocyte remyelination. Remyelination was absent when the spinal cord was exposed to 40 Grays of x-irradiation prior to demyelination, a procedure that kills dividing cells. Quantitative Rip immunohistochemical analysis revealed a similar density of surviving oligodendrocytes in x-irradiated and nonirradiated lesions 3 days after demyelination. Rip and bromodeoxyuridine double immunohistochemical analysis of demyelinated lesions indicated that Rip+ oligodendrocytes did not divide as an acute response to demyelination. Oligodendrocytes were also identified by Rip immunostaining and electron microscopy at late time points (3 weeks) within x-irradiated areas of demyelination. These oligodendrocytes extended processes that engaged axons, and on occasion formed myelin membranes, but did not lay down new myelin sheaths. These studies demonstrate that (a) oligodendrocytes that survive within a region of demyelination are not induced to divide in the presence of demyelinated axons, and (b) fully-differentiated oligodendrocytes are therefore postmitotic and do not contribute to remyelination in the adult CNS.Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 12/1997; 56(11):1191-201. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One important therapeutic goal during CNS injury from trauma or demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis is to develop methods to promote remyelination. We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous remyelination in the toxic nonimmune model of lysolecithin-induced demyelination can be enhanced by manipulating the inflammatory response. In PBS-treated SJL/J mice, the number of remyelinating axons per square millimeter of lesion area increased significantly 3 and 5 weeks after lysolecithin injection in the spinal cord. However, methylprednisolone or a monoclonal antibody (mAb), SCH94.03, developed for its ability to promote remyelination in the Theiler's virus murine model of demyelination, further increased the number of remyelinating axons per lesion area at 3 weeks by a factor of 2.6 and 1.9, respectively, but did not increase the ratio of myelin sheath thickness to axon diameter or the number of cells incorporating tritiated thymidine in the lesion. After 3 weeks, the number of remyelinating axons in the methylprednisolone or mAb SCH94.03 treatment groups was similar to the spontaneous remyelination in the 5 week PBS control-treated group, indicating that these treatments promoted remyelination by increasing its rate rather than its extent. To address a mechanism for promoting remyelination, through an effect on scavenger function, we assessed morphometrically the number of macrophages in lesions after methylprednisolone and mAb SCH94.03 treatment. Methylprednisolone reduced the number of macrophages, but SCH94.03 did not, although both enhanced remyelination. This study supports the hypothesis that even in toxic nonprimary immune demyelination, manipulating the inflammatory response is a benefit in myelin repair.Journal of Neuroscience 04/1998; 18(7):2498-505. · 6.91 Impact Factor