Grandparental anxiety and depression predict young children's internalizing and externalizing problems The generation R study
ABSTRACT Family history is a major risk factor for child problem behaviour, yet few studies have examined the association between grandparental psychiatric disorder and child problem behaviour. Results are inconsistent as to whether the effect of grandparental depression on child problem behaviour is independent of parental psychopathology.
Mothers and their children participated in an ethnically Dutch subcohort of a population-based prospective cohort in the Netherlands. N = 816 (66%) mothers and n = 691 fathers participated in the prenatal interviews. N = 687 (84%) mothers and children and n = 565 (82%) fathers participated three years postpartum. (Grand)parental psychopathology was assessed during pregnancy of the mothers with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria (FISC), the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Child behaviour was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by mother and father when the child was three years old.
Grandparental anxiety disorder predicted maternal reports of children's internalizing problems (OR = 1.98, 95% C.I. (1.20, 3.28), p-value<0.01) and externalizing problems (OR = 1.73, 95% C.I. (1.04, 2.87), p-value = 0.03), independent of parental psychopathology. Results were similar for grandparental depression; internalizing OR = 1.75, 95% C.I (1.11, 2.75), p-value = 0.02 and externalizing OR = 1.67, 95% C.I. (1.05, 2.64) p-value = 0.03. However, grandparental psychopathology was not associated with children's problem behaviour as reported by the father.
Information on grandparental lifetime psychiatric disorder was assessed through a parental interview which may have led to an underestimation of the prevalence rates.
These results confirm the importance of a family history including not only the parental but also the grandparental generations.
SourceAvailable from: Kirsten J Hancock[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is well known that children of parents with mental illness are at greater risk of mental illness themselves. However the patterns of familial mental health problems across multiple generations in families are less clear. This study aimed to examine mental health relationships across three generations of Australian families. Mental health data, along with a range of family demographic information, were collected from over 4600 families in Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative cohort study. The social and emotional wellbeing of two cohorts of children aged 4--5 years and 8--9 years was measured using the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The mental health of mothers and fathers was measured using the Kessler 6-item K6 scale, and the mental health history of maternal and paternal grandmothers and grandfathers was measured using a dichotomous parent-report item. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used assess the relationships between grandparent and parent mental health and child social and emotional wellbeing at ages 4--5 years and 8--9 years. Both cohorts of children had greater mental health distress with higher SDQ scores on average if their mother or father had a mental health problem. For children aged 8--9 years, a history of mental health problems in maternal grandmothers and grandfathers was associated with higher SDQ scores in grandchildren, after controlling for maternal and paternal mental health and other family characteristics. For children aged 4--5 years, only a mental health history in paternal grandfathers was associated with higher SDQ scores. The mental health histories of both parents and grandparents play an important role in the social and emotional wellbeing of young children.BMC Psychiatry 11/2013; 13(1):299. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-13-299 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Potential adverse effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure on child development are still debated. The possibility that associations are due to genetic or familial environmental risk factors rather than antidepressant use per se cannot easily be ruled out in conventional studies. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and behavioural problems in a sibling controlled study. This study used data on 20 180 siblings identified from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study recruited between 1999 and 2008. The mothers were asked to report antidepressant use at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and 6 months post-partum. Child Behavioral Checklist syndrome scales were used to assess externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems by questionnaires sent to mothers at 18 and 36 months postpartum. We performed unmatched and matched sibling analyses using both random- and fixed-effects linear models, respectively, to determine potential behavioural effects of antidepressant exposure. Prenatal exposure to antidepressants was associated with increased levels of anxiety symptoms in 3 year old children after adjusting for maternal familial effects and confounding by indication (i.e. maternal depression). Effect of prenatal exposure to antidepressants was specific to anxiety, and not associated with emotional reactivity, somatic complaints, sleep problems, attention problems or aggression. Using a sibling design, we showed that prenatal antidepressant use was specifically associated with increased anxiety symptoms after adjusting for maternal familial factors and confounding by indication. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.International Journal of Epidemiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv030 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal mental illness has a significant implication on maternal health, birth outcomes and the offspring's development. Prevalence estimates of perinatal psychiatric illnesses range widely, with substantial heterogeneity in different population studies, with a lower prevalence rate in high rather than low- or middle-income countries. Due to the potential negative impact on maternal and child outcomes and the potential lability of these disorders, the perinatal period is a critical time to identify psychiatric illnesses. Thus obstetricians and midwives play a crucial role in assessing women's mental health needs and to refer identified women promptly for multidisciplinary specialist assessment. However, there is still limited evidence on best practice assessment and management policies during pregnancy and postpartum. This review focuses on the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders and antenatal screening policies to identify women at risk. The effect of these conditions and their management on pregnancy, fetal outcomes and child development are discussed.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 10/2013; 210(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.009 · 3.97 Impact Factor