Bile leak remains a serious complication after hepatectomy. The conventional leak test by intrabiliary injection of normal saline solution is not sensitive. The authors present a new bile leak test using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence. After hepatic transection, ICG solution (.05 mg/mL) was intrabiliarily injected through a transcystic tube under distal common bile duct clamping, and fluorescent images were visualized using an infrared camera system. The ICG leak test was performed in 27 patients undergoing hepatectomy without biliary reconstruction. Bile leaks were intraoperatively found in 8 patients and fixed, resulting in no postoperative leaks. There was no adverse reaction to ICG. In contrast, postoperative bile leaks occurred in 2 of 32 patients who received the conventional leak test with normal saline solution between April 2007 and March 2008. The new bile leak test by ICG fluorography is useful to prevent postoperative bile leak.
"Two clinical studies have demonstrated the use of NIR fluorescence for bile leakage identification after hepatic resection [72, 73]. ICG was injected intrabiliary after hepatic resection through a transcystic catheter. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Improved imaging methods and surgical techniques have created a new era in hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. Despite these developments, visual inspection, palpation, and intraoperative ultrasound remain the most utilized tools during surgery today. This is problematic, though, especially in laparoscopic HPB surgery, where palpation is not possible. Optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence can be used for the real-time assessment of both anatomy (e.g., sensitive detection and demarcation of tumours and vital structures) and function (e.g., assessment of luminal flow and tissue perfusion) during both open and minimally invasive surgeries.
This article reviews the published literature related to preclinical development and clinical applications of NIR fluorescence imaging during HPB surgery.
NIR fluorescence imaging combines the use of otherwise invisible NIR fluorescent contrast agents and specially designed camera systems, which are capable of detecting these contrast agents during surgery. Unlike visible light, NIR fluorescent light can penetrate several millimetres through blood and living tissue, thus providing improved detectability. Applications of this technique during HPB surgery include tumour imaging in liver and pancreas, and real-time imaging of the biliary tree.
NIR fluorescence imaging is a promising new technique that may someday improve surgical accuracy and lower complications.
"A new technique described by Japanese surgeons involves injection of indocyanine green (ICG) dye through the transcystic tube followed by fluorescent imaging. The authors reported that small leaks not identified by a leak test using saline could be detected using this technique . ICG fluorescence cholangiography after hepatic resections in 52 cases was compared to a conventional leak test using ICG dye alone in 50 cases in another study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bile leaks from the intrahepatic biliary tree are an important cause of morbidity following hepatic surgery and trauma. Despite reduction in mortality for hepatic surgery in the last 2 decades, bile leaks rates have not changed significantly. In addition to posted operative bile leaks, leaks may occur following drainage of liver abscess and tumor ablation. Most bile leaks from the intrahepatic biliary tree are transient and managed conservatively by drainage alone or endoscopic biliary decompression. Selected cases may require reoperation and enteric drainage or liver resection for management.
HPB Surgery 05/2012; 2012(4):752932. DOI:10.1155/2012/752932
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assess whether the White test is better than the conventional bile leakage test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage in hepatectomized patients. This study included 30 patients who received elective liver resection. Both the conventional bile leakage test (injecting an isotonic sodium chloride solution through the cystic duct) and the White test (injecting a fat emulsion solution through the cystic duct) were carried out in the same patients. The detection of bile leakage was compared between the conventional method and the White test. A bile leak was demonstrated in 8 patients (26.7%) by the conventional method and in 19 patients (63.3%) by the White test. In addition, the White test detected a significantly higher number of bile leakage sites compared with the conventional method (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P < 0.001). The White test is better than the conventional test for the intraoperative detection of bile leakage. Based on our study, we recommend that surgeons investigating bile leakage sites during liver resections should use the White test instead of the conventional bile leakage test.
HPB Surgery 04/2012; 2012:425435. DOI:10.1155/2012/425435
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