Bile leak test by indocyanine green fluorescence images after hepatectomy.
ABSTRACT Bile leak remains a serious complication after hepatectomy. The conventional leak test by intrabiliary injection of normal saline solution is not sensitive. The authors present a new bile leak test using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence. After hepatic transection, ICG solution (.05 mg/mL) was intrabiliarily injected through a transcystic tube under distal common bile duct clamping, and fluorescent images were visualized using an infrared camera system. The ICG leak test was performed in 27 patients undergoing hepatectomy without biliary reconstruction. Bile leaks were intraoperatively found in 8 patients and fixed, resulting in no postoperative leaks. There was no adverse reaction to ICG. In contrast, postoperative bile leaks occurred in 2 of 32 patients who received the conventional leak test with normal saline solution between April 2007 and March 2008. The new bile leak test by ICG fluorography is useful to prevent postoperative bile leak.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Improved imaging methods and surgical techniques have created a new era in hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. Despite these developments, visual inspection, palpation, and intraoperative ultrasound remain the most utilized tools during surgery today. This is problematic, though, especially in laparoscopic HPB surgery, where palpation is not possible. Optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence can be used for the real-time assessment of both anatomy (e.g., sensitive detection and demarcation of tumours and vital structures) and function (e.g., assessment of luminal flow and tissue perfusion) during both open and minimally invasive surgeries. METHODS: This article reviews the published literature related to preclinical development and clinical applications of NIR fluorescence imaging during HPB surgery. RESULTS: NIR fluorescence imaging combines the use of otherwise invisible NIR fluorescent contrast agents and specially designed camera systems, which are capable of detecting these contrast agents during surgery. Unlike visible light, NIR fluorescent light can penetrate several millimetres through blood and living tissue, thus providing improved detectability. Applications of this technique during HPB surgery include tumour imaging in liver and pancreas, and real-time imaging of the biliary tree. CONCLUSIONS: NIR fluorescence imaging is a promising new technique that may someday improve surgical accuracy and lower complications.Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences. 07/2012;
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Paramalleolar bypass surgery requires a long incision to harvest the great saphenous vein (GSV), which is often associated with intractable postoperative lymphorrhea. To prevent this complication, we developed a novel method of intraoperative lymph imaging and preoperative vein mapping for vein harvesting. METHODS: Thirteen consecutive patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) underwent both preoperative vein mapping and intraoperative lymph mapping (Group A). Duplex vein mapping was performed to mark the GSV. Lymph mapping was performed with indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography. Paramalleolar bypasses were performed using reversed GSV grafts, with careful ligation of the subcutaneous lymph collector vessels above the GSV. The development of intractable postoperative lymphorrhea and the length of the postoperative hospital stay were compared with those in the previous ten consecutive CLI patients without lymph mapping who underwent paramalleolar bypass (Group B). RESULTS: The occurrence of intractable wound lymphorrhea by the 30th postoperative day was 3/10 (30 %) in Group B, while it was 0/13 (0 %) in Group A (p < 0.05). The length of the postoperative hospital stay was 31.7 ± 8.8 and 57.5 ± 39.5 days (Group A and Group B, respectively, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative lymph mapping and preoperative vein mapping are technically feasible and can positively contribute to the prevention of postoperative lymphorrhea after GSV harvesting.Surgery Today 03/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess systematically the safety and efficacy of bile leakage test in liver resection. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials involving the bile leakage test were included in a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate postoperative bile leakage, intraoperative positive bile leakage, and complications. We used either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Eight studies involving a total of 1253 patients were included and they all involved the bile leakage test in liver resection. The bile leakage test group was associated with a significant reduction in bile leakage compared with the non-bile leakage test group (RR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.23-0.67; I (2) = 3%). The white test had superiority for detection of intraoperative bile leakage compared with the saline solution test (RR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.24-4.56, P = 0.009). No significant intergroup differences were observed in total number of complications, ileus, liver failure, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, pulmonary disorder, abdominal infection, and wound infection. The bile leakage test reduced postoperative bile leakage and did not increase incidence of complications. Fat emulsion is the best choice of solution for the test.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 19(45):8420-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor