Golgi in retrospect: a historiographic examination of contextual influence in tracing the constructs of neuronal organization.
ABSTRACT The concepts underlying the connectivity of neurons and the dynamics of interaction required to explain information processing have undergone significant change over the past century. A re-examination of the evolution of the modern view in historical context reveals that rules for connectivity have changed in a manner that might be expected from critical analysis enabled by technical advance. A retrospective examination of some germane issues that moved Camillo Golgi to question the widely held dogma of his era reveals network principles that could not have been recognized a century ago. The currently evolving rules of cellular discontinuity and interaction have proven sufficiently complex to justify the arguments of critical skepticism that sustain scientific progress.
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ABSTRACT: Inhibitory interneurons often generate synchronous activity as an emergent property of their interconnections. To determine the role of electrical synapses in such activity, we constructed mice expressing histochemical reporters in place of the gap junction protein Cx36. Localization of the reporter with somatostatin and parvalbumin suggested that Cx36 was expressed largely by interneurons. Electrical synapses were common among cortical interneurons in controls but were nearly absent in knockouts. A metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist excited LTS interneurons, generating rhythmic inhibitory potentials in surrounding neurons of both wild-type and knockout animals. However, the synchrony of these rhythms was weaker and more spatially restricted in the knockout. We conclude that electrical synapses containing Cx36 are critical for the generation of widespread, synchronous inhibitory activity.Neuron 09/2001; 31(3):477-85. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The stabilization of new spines in the barrel cortex is enhanced after whisker trimming, but its relationship to experience-dependent plasticity is unclear. Here we show that in wild-type mice, whisker potentiation and spine stabilization are most pronounced for layer 5 neurons at the border between spared and deprived barrel columns. In homozygote alphaCaMKII-T286A mice, which lack experience-dependent potentiation of responses to spared whiskers, there is no increase in new spine stabilization at the border between barrel columns after whisker trimming. Our data provide a causal link between new spine synapses and plasticity of adult cortical circuits and suggest that alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation plays a role in the stabilization but not formation of new spines.Journal of Neuroscience 04/2010; 30(14):4927-32. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies of short-term plasticity in central nervous systems synapses have largely focused on average synaptic properties. In this study, we use recordings from putative single synaptic release sites in hippocampal slices to show that significant heterogeneity exists in facilitation and depletion among synapses. In particular, the amount of paired-pulse facilitation is inversely related to the initial release probability of the synapse. We also examined depletion at individual synapses using high frequency stimulation, and estimated the size of the readily releasable vesicle pool, which averaged 5.0 +/- 3.0 quanta (n = 13 synapses). In addition, these experiments demonstrate that the release probability at a synapse is directly correlated with the size of its readily releasable vesicle pool.Neuron 07/1997; 18(6):995-1008. · 15.77 Impact Factor