A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice.
ABSTRACT A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the IL28B gene has been associated with response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and also with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C in a heterogeneous population. We analyzed the association between IL28B and the clinical presentation of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a homogeneous population.
We analyzed the SNP rs12979860 in 190 women from the German anti-D cohort (infected with HCV genotype 1b via contaminated rhesus prophylaxis) and its association with spontaneous clearance. Clinical data were available in 136 women with acute infection who were also evaluated for IL28B genotype. Based on results of a TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay, the rs12979860 SNP genotypes studied were C/C, C/T, or T/T.
Spontaneous clearance was more common in patients with the C/C genotype (43/67; 64%) compared with C/T (22/90; 24%) or T/T (2/33; 6%) (P < .001). Jaundice during acute infection was more common among patients with C/C genotype (32.7%) than non-C/C patients (with C/T or T/T) (16.1%; P = .032). In C/C patients, jaundice during acute infection was not associated with an increased chance of spontaneous clearance (56.3%) compared with those without jaundice (60.6%). In contrast, in non-C/C patients, jaundice was associated with a higher likelihood of spontaneous clearance (42.9%) compared with those without jaundice (13.7%).
The SNP rs12979860 upstream of IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV. Women with the C/T or T/T genotype who did not develop jaundice had a lower chance of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding viral dynamics during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can provide important insights into immunopathogenesis and guide early treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of HCV RNA and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels during recent HCV infection in the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC). ATAHC was a prospective study of the natural history of recently acquired HCV infection. Longitudinal HCV RNA and ALT levels were compared among individuals with persistent infection and spontaneous clearance. Among those with HCV persistence (n = 104) and HCV clearance (n = 30), median HCV RNA (5.2 vs. 4.1 log IU/ml, respectively) and ALT levels (779 vs. 1,765 IU/L, respectively) were high during month two following infection, and then declined during months three and four in both groups. Among those with HCV persistence, median HCV RNA was 2.9 log IU/ml during months four, increased to 5.5 log IU/ml during month five, and remained subsequently relatively stable. Among those with HCV clearance, median HCV RNA was undetectable by month five. Median HCV RNA levels were comparable between individuals with HCV persistence and HCV clearance during month three following infection (3.2 vs. 3.5 log IU/ml, respectively; P = 0.935), but markedly different during month five (5.5 vs. 1.0 log IU/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). In conclusion, dynamics of HCV RNA levels in those with HCV clearance and HCV persistence diverged between months three and five following infection, with the latter time-point being potentially useful for commencing early treatment. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Medical Virology 10/2014; 86(10). DOI:10.1002/jmv.24010 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to one of two outcomes; either the infection resolves within approximately 6 months or the virus can persist indefinitely. Host genetics are known to affect the likelihood of clearance or persistence. By contrast, the importance of the virus genotype in determining infection outcome is unknown, as quantifying this effect traditionally requires well-characterized transmission networks, which are rare. Extending phylogenetic approaches previously developed to estimate the virus control over set-point viral load in HIV-1 infections, we simulate inheritance of a binary trait along a phylogenetic tree, use this data to quantify how infection outcomes cluster and ascertain the effect of virus genotype on these. We apply our method to the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) data set from Australia, as this cohort prospectively identified incident cases including viraemic subjects who ultimately clear the virus, thus providing us with a unique collection of sequences from clearing infections. We detect significant correlations between infection outcome and virus distance in the phylogeny for viruses of Genotype 1, with estimates lying at around 67%. No statistically significant estimates were obtained for viruses of Genotype 3a.Evolutionary Applications 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/eva.12151 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infections with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a major cause of chronic liver disease. While the acute phase of infection is mostly asymptomatic, this virus has the high propensity to establish persistence and in the course of one to several decades liver disease can develop. HCV is a paradigm for the complex interplay between the interferon (IFN) system and viral countermeasures. On one hand HCV induces an IFN response, but on the other hand within the infected cell HCV is rather sensitive against the antiviral state triggered by IFNs. Numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) have been reported to suppress HCV replication, but in only a few cases we begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying antiviral activity. It is becoming increasingly clear that blockage of viral replication is mediated by the concerted action of multiple ISGs that target different steps of the HCV replication cycle. This review briefly summarizes the activation of the IFN system by HCV and then focuses on ISGs targeting the HCV replication cycle and their possible mode of action.Journal of Hepatology 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.07.033 · 10.40 Impact Factor