Immunoxel (Dzherelo) is an oral, herbal immunomodulator used in Ukraine for adjunct therapy of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Antiretroviral drug-naive, tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfected patients with active pulmonary TB were divided into two arms, A (n = 20) and B (n = 20), to receive first-line anti-TB therapy (ATT) or ATT + Dzherelo, respectively. As a result, three (16%) versus 12 (67%; p = 0.003) patients had Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture conversion, with time to negative culture of 6 and 4 months in arms A and B, respectively. In the ATT-alone arm, the healing of pulmonary cavitations was observed in 25% of patients at weeks 24-28, while 60% of individuals in arm B healed at 16-18 weeks (p = 0.025). The TB lesions, on chest x-ray, had cleared in 46 and 84%, with time-to-clearance of 24-28 and 16-18 weeks in arms A and B, respectively. In the ATT-alone arm, the bodyweight at baseline was 64 +/- 6.3 kg, with 13 cachexic patients who had an average weight deficit of -5.2 +/- 1.7 kg. At the end of 6 months of follow-up, they have lost an additional 0.6 kg (-5.8 +/- 2.4). The study entry-level weight in arm B was 52 +/- 5.7 kg, with 12 individuals who had a body mass deficit of -8.5 +/- 2.7 kg. The immunotherapeutic intervention increased bodyweight by an average of 5.8 +/- 2.6 kg above baseline (p < 0.0001). The inclusion of Dzherelo into the ATT regimen decreased the incidence of new opportunistic infections (OI) with three episodes of OI versus 12 in arm A (p = 0.003). These findings indicate that Dzherelo contributes positively to the clinical efficacy of TB drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Phase IIb, placebo-controlled study involved 55 TB patients treated with anti-TB therapy. They were divided into two groups, matched by age, gender, baseline bodyweight and clinical manifestations: one group (n = 27) received a once-daily V-5 Immunitor (V5) immunotherapy pill and the other (n = 28) received placebo. Only one (3.7%) and three (10.7%) subjects in V5 and placebo arms, respectively had first-diagnosed, drug-sensitive TB; the remaining patients had re-treated TB, multidrug-resistant TB or HIV-TB coinfection. After 1 month, 26 out of 27 patients (96.3%) became sputum smear negative in the V5 group (p < 0.0000001), whereas seven out of 28 (25%) in the placebo group had converted (p = 0.005). V5 contributed to the downregulation of TB-associated inflammation, as shown by normalization of high leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and faster defervescence than controls. Patients in both arms experienced an increase in the levels of hemoglobin corresponding to 128.9 ± 17.6 versus 133.1 ± 14.7 g/l (p = 0.03) and 112.6 ± 14 versus 117 ± 11.7 g/l (p = 0.03) in V5 and placebo arms, respectively. In total, 19 out of 28 placebo patients (67.9%) gained, on average, 1.07 kg (59.1 ± 10 vs 60.1 ± 10.4 kg; p = 0.003). By contrast, all patients in the V5 group gained weight with mean 3.4 kg (59.7 ± 8 vs 63.1 ± 9 kg; p = 5.7E-007). Clinical symptoms improved among all patients in V5 arm, while 28.6% of patients on placebo reported satisfactory results (p = 0.007). No adverse or side effects attributable to V5 were seen at any time. Further studies are needed to gauge the extent of the benefits of V5 as safe and effective adjunct immunotherapy for TB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-O-methylglovanon (5-O-MG) is a bioactive compound that was first isolated and characterized from Glycosmis plants. In this study, we found that chemically synthesized 5-O-MG has antimicrobial ability against eleven clinical ampicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis isolates. The MICs of 5-O-MG against the S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates were 12.5-50 μg/mL and 25-50 μg/mL, respectively. In combination with ampicillin, a synergistic interaction between 5-O-MG and ampicillin against the eleven resistant Staphylococcus isolates was observed, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.03-0125. Moreover, the anti-staphylococcal activity of 5-O-MG in combination with ampicillin was comparable with that of clavulanic acid in combination with ampicillin. The drug combination had no antagonistic effects when tested against any of the strains. Time-killing assays confirmed the synergy between 5-O-MG and ampicillin (p < 0.01). The combination of these two agents yielded greater than a 2 log(10) cfu/mL decrease in comparison with 5-O-MG or ampicillin alone. These findings suggest that 5-O-MG is a promising compound with the potential for future anti-staphylococcal drug development.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 10/2011; 34(10):1751-7. DOI:10.1007/s12272-011-1019-x · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For centuries the treatment of TB has presented an enormous challenge to global health. In the 20th century, the treatment of TB patients with long-term multidrug therapy gave hope that TB could be controlled and cured; however, contrary to these expectations and coinciding with the emergence of AIDS, the world has witnessed a rampant increase in hard-to-treat cases of TB, along with the emergence of highly virulent and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Unfortunately, these bacteria are now circulating around the world, and there are few effective drugs to treat them. As a result, the prospects for improved treatment and control of TB in the 21st century have worsened and we urgently need to identify new therapies that deal with this problem. The potential use of immunotherapy for TB is now of greater consideration than ever before, as immunotherapy could potentially overcome the problem of drug resistance. TB immunotherapy targets the already existing host anti-TB immune response and aims to enhance killing of the bacilli. For this purpose, several approaches have been used: the use of anti-Mycobacteria antibodies; enhancing the Th1 protective responses by using mycobacterial antigens or increasing Th1 cytokines; interfering with the inflammatory process and targeting of immunosuppressive pathways and targeting the cell activation/proliferation pathways. This article reviews our current understanding of TB immunity and targets for immunotherapy that could be used in combination with current TB chemotherapy.
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