Article

Calorie and Protein Intake and its Determinants Among Adolescent School Girls in Delhi

Indian Journal of Community Medicine 01/2005;
Source: DOAJ
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the diet quality and nutritional status of beneficiaries of Adolescent Girl scheme, a national programme targeted towards their nutrition/health needs. 209 girls (aged 11-21 years) from six rural blocks - Delhi (Alipur, Kanjhawala and Mehrauli), Haryana (Madhosinghana), Rajasthan (Deeg) and Uttar Pradesh (Fatehpur Sikri) comprised the sample. Weight and height were measured and dietary intake data were gathered by one day 24 Hour Recall coupled with Food Frequency approach. Incidence of thinness ('BMI for age' <5th percentile) and stunting ('height for age' <3rd percentile) was 30.6% and 29.7%. The subjects followed a two-meal pattern and their diets were monotonous and cereal-based. 49.3% of them were found to have energy intake less than 75% of RDA while a substantial proportion of them had inadequate nutrient intake (NAR <0.66) with respect to most of the micronutrients especially iron (84.7%), folic acid (79.4%) and vitamin A (73.2%). The mean daily intake of milk and milk products, pulses, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and fruits was grossly inadequate meeting only 47%, 36%, 26%, 34% and 3% of the suggested allowances; that of fats/oils and roots/tubers was somewhat adequate meeting 65% and 72% of the allowances while the intake of cereals and sugar was almost adequate revealing a deficit of only 7% and 3%. The study reveals not only a high incidence of under-nutrition but also an inadequate energy/micronutrient intake among the beneficiaries of Adolescent Girl scheme. Therefore, sustained efforts are needed to strengthen the scheme for improving its field-level implementation.
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    ABSTRACT: Forty to fifty per cent of skeletal mass, accumulated during childhood and adolescence, is influenced by sunlight exposure, physical activity, lifestyle, endocrine status, nutrition and gender. In view of scarce data on association of nutrition and lifestyle with hypovitaminosis D in Indian children and adolescents, an in-depth study on 3,127 apparently healthy Delhi schoolgirls (6-18 years) from the lower (LSES, n 1,477) and upper socioeconomic strata (USES, n 1650) was carried out. These girls were subjected to anthropometry and clinical examination for hypovitaminosis D. Girls randomly selected from the two strata (LSES, n 193; USES, n 211) underwent detailed lifestyle, dietary, biochemical and hormonal assessment. Clinical vitamin D deficiency was noted in 11.5 % girls (12.4 % LSES, 10.7 % USES). USES girls had significantly higher BMI than LSES counterparts. Prevalence of biochemical hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/l) was seen in 90.8 % of girls (89.6 % LSES, 91.9 % USES, NS). Mean intake of energy, protein, fat, Ca, vitamin D and milk/milk products was significantly higher in USES than LSES girls. Conversely, carbohydrate, fibre, phytate and cereal intakes were higher in LSES than USES girls. Physical activity and time spent outdoors was significantly higher in LSES girls (92.8 v. 64 %, P = 0.000). Significant correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and estimated sun exposure (r 0.185, P = 0.001) and percentage body surface area exposed (r 0.146, P = 0.004) suggests that these lifestyle-related factors may contribute significantly to the vitamin D status of the apparently healthy schoolgirls. Hence, in the absence of vitamin D fortification of foods, diet alone appears to have an insignificant role.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 05/2008; 99(4):876-82. · 3.30 Impact Factor

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