"In 2010, Goriely and Wilkie highlighted that paternal age effect (PAE) mutations are an emerging mechanism contributing to the introduction of new disease alleles into the population. PAE mutations mostly encode mutant proteins with gain-of-function properties, are of near-exclusive paternal origin, occur at elevated paternal ages and have an apparent germline mutation rate . Interestingly, PAE mutations have been reported in various craniosynostosis syndromes caused by mutations in FGFR2 and FGFR3. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that FGFR2 gene variations confer a risk for breast cancer. FGFR2 and FGF10, the main ligand of FGFR2, are both overexpressed in 5-10% of breast tumors. In our study, we sequenced the most important coding regions of FGFR2 in somatic tumor tissue of 140 sporadic breast cancer patients and performed MLPA analysis to detect copy number variations in FGFR2 and FGF10. We identified one somatic heterozygous missense mutation, p.K660N (c.1980G>C), within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 in tumor tissue of a sporadic breast cancer patient, which is likely mediated by the FGFR2-IIIb isoform. The presence of wild type and mutated alleles in equal quantities suggests that the mutation has driven clonal amplification of mutant cells. We have analyzed the tyrosine kinase activity of p.K660N and another recently described somatic breast cancer mutation in FGFR2, p.R203C, after expression in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of both mutant proteins is strongly increased resulting in elevated phosphorylation and activity of downstream effectors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of functional analysis of somatic breast cancer mutations in FGFR2 providing evidence for the activating nature of FGFR2-mediated signalling in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e60264. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060264 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contemporary sequencing studies often ignore the diploid nature of the human genome because they do not routinely separate or 'phase' maternally and paternally derived sequence information. However, many findings - both from recent studies and in the more established medical genetics literature - indicate that relationships between human DNA sequence and phenotype, including disease, can be more fully understood with phase information. Thus, the existing technological impediments to obtaining phase information must be overcome if human genomics is to reach its full potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rare de novo genetic variants have been detected in a number of diseases using case-parent trios. So far, trio studies have largely been confined to early-onset diseases where parent DNA samples are readily available. To test the feasibility of finding rare de novo variants in a typical late-onset neurodegenerative disease, we compared genome-wide copy number variants (CNVs) between patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and their unaffected parents. DNA from 12 SALS patients and their 24 parents was analysed for CNVs using AffyMetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays and Partek software. De novo CNVs (present in patients but not their parents) considered likely candidates for SALS were those that overlapped with CNS-related genes, were rare, or were found in multiple patients. All SALS patients had de novo CNVs. In 11 patients, 37 de novo CNVs fulfilled one or more criteria for a candidate region. Eleven de novo CNVs overlapped with genes, some of which are in pathways suspected in the pathogenesis of SALS. In conclusion, this pilot study shows that trios can be used to look for rare de novo genetic variants in patients with late adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. The results suggest that further studies of this nature with larger numbers of trios are warranted, but it is unusual to find surviving parents of offspring who have a late-onset neurodegenerative disease. An international collaborative effort will therefore be needed to collect sufficient numbers of such trios to reliably detect de novo mutations underlying these diseases.
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