Effect of myofiber characteristics and thickness of perimysium and endomysium on meat tenderness of chickens.
ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of myofiber characteristics and the thickness of 2 major muscle membranes, perimysium and endomysium, in determining the breast meat tenderness of chickens. Birds from 2 breeds (White Leghorn and a line of broiler) were chosen. Chicks were sexed and wing-banded at hatch and were grown in separate cages in a single house. Sixty broilers and 60 White Leghorns were harvested at 6 wk of age, respectively, whereas another 60 White Leghorns were slaughtered at 18 wk of age. An equal number of males and females was maintained for each group. Body weight, breast muscle weight, pH, drip loss, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force value (SFV), total energy of shear force, fiber diameter, sarcomere length, myofiber density, and the thickness of endomysium and perimysium of the breast were determined for each bird. At 6 wk of age, histological examination indicated that the size of myofiber and thickness of endomysium and perimysium of broilers were larger than that those of White Leghorns (P < 0.01), whereas the SFV, drip loss, and cooking loss of broilers were smaller (P < 0.01). A comparison between the White Leghorns at 18 wk and the broilers at 6 wk, which were at similar BW but different ages, showed that the breast muscle weight of broilers was larger (P < 0.01) than that of White Leghorns. For breast muscle, the endomysium of broilers at 6 wk was thicker than that of White Leghorns at 18 wk (P < 0.01), whereas the perimysium was thinner (P < 0.01). The SFV, drip loss, and the cooking loss of broilers were smaller than those of White Leghorns at similar BW (P < 0.01). Meat tenderness was negatively correlated with myofiber density (-0.27) and the thickness of endomysium (-0.29) and positively correlated with the thickness of perimysium (0.20). It is suggested that muscle membrane should be considered in evaluating meat tenderness of the chicken.
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ABSTRACT: Three muscles (Longissimus thoracis, Semimembranosus, Biceps femoris) of 40 young bulls from 3 breeds were used to quantify structural characteristics of bovine connective tissue by image analysis, with both macroscopic and microscopic approaches. Collagen and proteoglycan content was also investigated. Perimysium occupied a greater area (8 vs 6%), and was wider (42 vs 2 μm) and shorter per unit area (1.9 vs 30 mm mm− 2) than endomysium. Perimysium and endomysium from Longissimus were thinner, less ramified than in Biceps. Longissimus showed less total collagen and cross-linking and more proteoglycans (P < 0.0001) than Biceps muscle. Blond d'Aquitaine perimysium occupied less area, was more ramified and muscles contained less collagen, cross-linking and more proteoglycans than Angus (P < 0.001). Limousin was intermediate. High proteoglycan content in muscle containing less total collagen suggested a complementarity between these molecules. They might influence mechanical properties of intramuscular connective tissue. This was especially true given that proteoglycans and total collagen were negatively and positively linked with structural parameters, respectively.Meat Science 03/2013; 93(3):378-386. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Collagen constitutes 20-30% of proteins in the organism of mammals and birds, and it is a major component of the intramuscular conective tissue. In the muscles, collagen is mainly stored in epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium. There are more than 20 genetic types of collagen in the skeletal muscles and, among them, collagen type I and type III are a significant portion. The morphology, composition, and quality of the connective tissue in the muscles depend predominantly on their type, as well as on the species, breed, and age of animal. Owing to differences in methods of determining collagen, the content of this protin can differ in individual muscles. A high content of this incomplete protin in the connective tissue of the muscles has a significant impact on the tenderness of meat and decreases its quality. The cross-linking of collagen in the muscles that are highly active in live animals increases with age of animals and causes the meat to become hard. A lower content of collagen was found in the muscles with longer sarcomeres and in the meat from late maturing and castrated animals.Zywnosc: Nauka, Technologia, Jakosc 03/2013; 87(2):19-29. · 0.19 Impact Factor