Prostate carcinoma (CaP) is a heterogeneous multifocal disease where gene expression and regulation are altered not only with disease progression but also between metastatic lesions. The androgen receptor (AR) regulates the growth of metastatic CaPs; however, sensitivity to androgen ablation is short lived, yielding to emergence of castrate-resistant CaP (CRCaP). CRCaP prostate cancers continue to express the AR, a pivotal prostate regulator, but it is not known whether the AR targets similar or different genes in different castrate-resistant cells. In this study, we investigated AR binding and AR-dependent transcription in two related castrate-resistant cell lines derived from androgen-dependent CWR22-relapsed tumors: CWR22Rv1 (Rv1) and CWR-R1 (R1). Expression microarray analysis revealed that R1 and Rv1 cells had significantly different gene expression profiles individually and in response to androgen. In contrast, AR chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with promoter DNA microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) studies showed that they have a similar AR-binding profile. Coupling of the microarray study with ChIP-on-chip analysis identified direct AR targets. The most prominent function of transcripts that were direct AR targets was transcriptional regulation, although only one transcriptional regulator, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ, was commonly regulated in both lines. Our results indicate that the AR regulates the expression of different transcripts in the two lines, and demonstrate the versatility of the AR-regulated gene expression program in prostate tumors.
"Most ARΔLBDs are products of alternative splicing (AR-V) , , albeit other mechanisms like nonsense-mutations leading to premature chain termination and enzymatic cleavage were also shown to give rise to ARΔLBDs , , . Although many ARΔLBDs were shown to activate AR-target genes under androgen deprived conditions in vitro, they are unable to activate the full panel of AR-dependent genes , , , , , . While in vivo both, the AR and ARΔLBD are expressed in CRPC cells, it was suggested that ARΔLBD- receptors must act in concert with full length AR to activate AR-dependent genes in CRPC . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often characterized by an increase of C-terminally truncated, constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) variants. Due to the absence of a ligand binding domain located in the AR-C-terminus, these receptor variants (also termed ARΔLBD) are unable to respond to all classical forms of endocrine treatments like surgical/chemical castration and/or application of anti-androgens.
In this study we tested the effects of the naturally occurring stilbene resveratrol (RSV) and (E)-4-(2, 6-Difluorostyryl)-N, N-dimethylaniline, a fluorinated dialkylaminostilbene (FIDAS) on AR- and ARΔLBD in prostate cancer cells. The ability of the compounds to modulate transcriptional activity of AR and the ARΔLBD-variant Q640X was shown by reporter gene assays. Expression of endogenous AR and ARΔLBD mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Nuclear translocation of AR-molecules was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. AR and ARΔLBD/Q640X homo-/heterodimer formation was assessed by mammalian two hybrid assays. Biological activity of both compounds in vivo was demonstrated using a chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay.
The stilbenes RSV and FIDAS were able to significantly diminish AR and Q640X-signalling. Successful inhibition of the Q640X suggests that RSV and FIDAS are not interfering with the AR-ligand binding domain like all currently available anti-hormonal drugs. Repression of AR and Q640X-signalling by RSV and FIDAS in prostate cancer cells was caused by an inhibition of the AR and/or Q640X-dimerization. Although systemic bioavailability of both stilbenes is very low, both compounds were also able to downregulate tumor growth and AR-signalling in vivo.
RSV and FIDAS are able to inhibit the dimerization of AR and ARΔLBD molecules suggesting that stilbenes might serve as lead compounds for a novel generation of AR-inhibitors.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98566. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098566 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) is a key molecule involved in prostate cancer (PC) development and progression. Post-translational modification of the AR by co-regulator proteins can modulate its transcriptional activity. To identify which demethylases might be involved in AR regulation, an siRNA screen was performed to reveal that the demethylase, KDM4B, may be an important co-regulator protein. KDM4B enzymatic activity is required to enhance AR transcriptional activity; however, independently of this activity, KDM4B can enhance AR protein stability via inhibition of AR ubiquitination. Importantly, knockdown of KDM4B in multiple cell lines results in almost complete depletion of AR protein levels. For the first time, we have identified KDM4B to be an androgen-regulated demethylase enzyme, which can influence AR transcriptional activity not only via demethylation activity but also via modulation of ubiquitination. Together, these findings demonstrate the close functional relationship between AR and KDM4B, which work together to amplify the androgen response. Furthermore, KDM4B expression in clinical PC specimens positively correlates with increasing cancer grade (P < 0.001). Consequently, KDM4B is a viable therapeutic target in PC.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2013; 41(8). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt106 · 9.11 Impact Factor
"Previous studies have identified AR binding events in the presence of androgen in CRPC cells (15,20,82,83). In this study, we performed AR ChIP-seq in CRPC cells cultured in hormone-depleted media and identified a large number of robust androgen-independent AR binding events. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor that mediates androgen action in target tissues. Upon ligand binding, the AR binds to thousands of genomic loci and activates a cell-type specific gene program. Prostate cancer growth and progression depend on androgen-induced AR signaling. Treatment of advanced prostate cancer through medical or surgical castration leads to initial response and durable remission, but resistance inevitably develops. In castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), AR activity remains critical for tumor growth despite androgen deprivation. Although previous studies have focused on ligand-dependent AR signaling, in this study we explore AR function under the androgen-deprived conditions characteristic of CRPC. Our data demonstrate that AR persistently occupies a distinct set of genomic loci after androgen deprivation in CRPC. These androgen-independent AR occupied regions have constitutively open chromatin structures that lack the canonical androgen response element and are independent of FoxA1, a transcription factor involved in ligand-dependent AR targeting. Many AR binding events occur at proximal promoters, which can act as enhancers to augment transcriptional activities of other promoters through DNA looping. We further show that androgen-independent AR binding directs a gene expression program in CRPC, which is necessary for the growth of CRPC after androgen withdrawal.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2012; 40(21). DOI:10.1093/nar/gks888 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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