BTBR Ob/Ob mutant mice model progressive diabetic nephropathy.

Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 8.99). 09/2010; 21(9):1533-42. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2009121290
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There remains a need for robust mouse models of diabetic nephropathy (DN) that mimic key features of advanced human DN. The recently developed mouse strain BTBR with the ob/ob leptin-deficiency mutation develops severe type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, elevated triglycerides, and insulin resistance, but the renal phenotype has not been characterized. Here, we show that these obese, diabetic mice rapidly develop morphologic renal lesions characteristic of both early and advanced human DN. BTBR ob/ob mice developed progressive proteinuria beginning at 4 weeks. Glomerular hypertrophy and accumulation of mesangial matrix, characteristic of early DN, were present by 8 weeks, and glomerular lesions similar to those of advanced human DN were present by 20 weeks. By 22 weeks, we observed an approximately 20% increase in basement membrane thickness and a >50% increase in mesangial matrix. Diffuse mesangial sclerosis (focally approaching nodular glomerulosclerosis), focal arteriolar hyalinosis, mesangiolysis, and focal mild interstitial fibrosis were present. Loss of podocytes was present early and persisted. In summary, BTBR ob/ob mice develop a constellation of abnormalities that closely resemble advanced human DN more rapidly than most other murine models, making this strain particularly attractive for testing therapeutic interventions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with activation of the polyol pathway, in which glucose is converted to sorbitol by aldose reductase. Previous studies focused on the role of sorbitol in mediating diabetic complications. However, in the proximal tubule, sorbitol can be converted to fructose, which is then metabolized largely by fructokinase, also known as ketohexokinase, leading to ATP depletion, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and oxidative stress. We and others recently identified a potential deleterious role of dietary fructose in the generation of tubulointerstitial injury and the acceleration of CKD. In this study, we investigated the potential role of endogenous fructose production, as opposed to dietary fructose, and its metabolism through fructokinase in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Wild-type mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes developed proteinuria, reduced GFR, and renal glomerular and proximal tubular injury. Increased renal expression of aldose reductase; elevated levels of renal sorbitol, fructose, and uric acid; and low levels of ATP confirmed activation of the fructokinase pathway. Furthermore, renal expression of inflammatory cytokines with macrophage infiltration was prominent. In contrast, diabetic fructokinase-deficient mice demonstrated significantly less proteinuria, renal dysfunction, renal injury, and inflammation. These studies identify fructokinase as a novel mediator of diabetic nephropathy and document a novel role for endogenous fructose production, or fructoneogenesis, in driving renal disease.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 05/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Piperidine-based peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists are agents that are efficacious in improving lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory indicators in diabetes and obesity. This study sought to determine whether CP-900691 ((S)-3-[3-(1-carboxy-1-methyl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid 4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl ester; CP), a member of this novel class of agents, by decreasing plasma triglycerides, could prevent diabetic nephropathy in the Black and Tan, BRachyuric (BTBR) ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Four-week old female BTBR WT and BTBR ob/ob mice received either regular chow or one containing CP (3 mg/kg per day) for 14 weeks. CP elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein, albuminuria, and urinary excretion of 8-epi PGF2α, a product of the nonenzymatic metabolism of arachidonic acid and whose production is elevated in oxidative stress, in BTBR WT mice. In BTBR ob/ob mice, CP reduced plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, fasting blood glucose, body weight, and plasma interleukin-6, while concomitantly improving insulin resistance. Despite these beneficial metabolic effects, CP had no effect on elevated plasma insulin, 8-epi PGF2α excretion, and albuminuria, and surprisingly, did not ameliorate the development of diabetic nephropathy, having no effect on the accumulation of renal macrophages, glomerular hypertrophy, and increased mesangial matrix expansion. In addition, CP did not increase plasma high-density lipoprotein in BTBR ob/ob mice, while paradoxically increasing total cholesterol levels. These findings indicate that 8-epi PGF2α, possibly along with hyperinsulinemia and inflammatory and dysfunctional lipoproteins, is integral to the development of diabetic nephropathy and should be considered as a potential target of therapy in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 23 June 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.80.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a situation that is in part attributable to the lack of effective treatments. Fluorofenidone is a newly developed reagent with anti-fibrotic activity. While fluorofenidone was previously demonstrated to possess renoprotection from DN pathogenesis in db/db mice, the protective process and its underlying mechanisms have not been well studied. To characterize fluorofenidone-derived renoprotection, we treated 5, 8, or 12-week old db/db mice with daily doses of placebo, fluorofenidone, or losartan until 24 weeks of age; the time at which diabetes and DN were fully developed in placebo-treated animals. In comparison to db/db mice receiving fluorofenidone at 12-weeks old, those treated at 5-weeks had less glomerular expansion and better preservation of renal functions, judged by serum creatinine levels, albumin to creatinine ratio, and urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 hours). These benefits of early treatment were associated with significant reductions of multiple DN-promoting events, such as decreased expression of TGF-β1 and the p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase as well as downregulated activation of protein kinase C-zeta (ζ), ERK and AKT. This improvement in renoprotection following early interventions is not a unique property of DN pathogenesis, as losartan does not apparently offer the same benefits and is not more renoprotective than fluorofenidone. Additionally, the enhanced renoprotection provided by fluorofenidone did not affect the diabetic process, as it did not alter serum levels of glycated serum proteins, glucose, triglyceride or cholesterol. Collectively, we provide evidence that fluorofenidone offers improved renoprotection at early stages of DN pathogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e111242. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014