Expectancy-value theory in persistence of learning effects in schizophrenia: role of task value and perceived competency.
ABSTRACT Expectancy-value theory, a widely accepted model of motivation, posits that expectations of success on a learning task and the individual value placed on the task are central determinants of motivation to learn. This is supported by research in healthy controls suggesting that beliefs of self-and-content mastery can be so influential they can predict the degree of improvement on challenging cognitive tasks even more so than general cognitive ability. We examined components of expectancy-value theory (perceived competency and task value), along with baseline arithmetic performance and neuropsychological performance, as possible predictors of learning outcome in a sample of 70 outpatients with schizophrenia randomized to 1 of 2 different arithmetic learning conditions and followed up after 3 months. Results indicated that as with nonpsychiatric samples, perceived self-competency for the learning task was significantly related to perceptions of task value attributed to the learning task. Baseline expectations of success predicted persistence of learning on the task at 3-month follow-up, even after accounting for variance attributable to different arithmetic instruction, baseline arithmetic ability, attention, and self-reports of task interest and task value. We also found that expectation of success is a malleable construct, with posttraining improvements persisting at follow-up. These findings support the notion that expectancy-value theory is operative in schizophrenia. Thus, similar to the nonpsychiatric population, treatment benefits may be enhanced and better maintained if remediation programs also focus on perceptions of self-competency for the training tasks. Treatment issues related to instilling self-efficacy in cognitive recovery programs are discussed.
SourceAvailable from: M.Suresh Kumar Ph.D.,[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study helps the researchers to understand the youth’s actual interest level in Thiruvannamalai district of Tamilnadu. The literacy rate and educational outcomes of this dirtrict is far below than many of the educational districts in Tamilnadu state. The investigators felt that the learning interest of youth in this area may be low. To understand the reality they took this research work. The findings of the present investigation will help the policy makers, educational authorities to make change in this area. The investigators used normative survey as research method, random sampling as a technique to draw the sample of 300 youth from colleges in this area. The findings of the study reveal that youth are having average level of learning interest in this area.
Dataset: Gooding et al 2012
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ABSTRACT: Motivation impairment is an often prominent component of schizophrenia symptomatology that impacts treatment engagement and reduces the functional benefit from psychosocial interventions. Intrinsic motivation in particular has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. Nowhere is the role of intrinsic motivation impairment more evident than in cognitive remediation for schizophrenia. This chapter describes the theoretical determinants of motivation to learn and illustrates how those determinants have been translated into therapeutic techniques that enhance intrinsic motivation in a clinical context. We review the extant research that indicates how motivation enhancing techniques yield treatment-related improvements within cognitive remediation therapy and, more broadly, in other behavioral skills-based interventions for schizophrenia.