Antimutagenic effects of lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea (L.) Zoph. extracts against the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in vitro.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Toxicology and Industrial Health (Impact Factor: 1.56). 10/2010; 26(9):625-31. DOI: 10.1177/0748233710377779
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol, acetone, n-hexane and ether extracts obtained from Pseudovernia furfuracea on genotoxicity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in cultured human blood cells intoxicated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used for genotoxic influences estimation. In both the test systems, it was observed that P. furfuracea extracts suppressed the mutagenic effects of AFB(1) due to the type of extracts added to the cultures. Furthermore, a significant reduction in plasma TAC was observed after AFB(1) treatment. Interestingly, the methanol and acetone extracts of the lichen recovered AFB(1)-induced TAC inhibition. The order of extracts of anti-genotoxicity efficacy against AFB(1) was methanol, acetone, ether and n-hexane, respectively. In conclusion, P. furfuracea has been shown to modulate the adverse effects of AFB(1) in human blood cells for the first time.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A common dietary contaminant, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), has been shown to be a potent mutagen and carcinogen in humans and many animal species. Since the eradication of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products has been rare, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boron compounds like borax (BX) and boric acid are the major components of industry and their antioxidant role has recently been reported. In the present report, we evaluated the capability of BX to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by AFB1. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with AFB1 (3.12 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of BX (1, 2 and 5 ppm) and AFB1 resulted in decreases of SCE and MN rates as compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone. Borax gave 30-50 % protection against AFB1 induced SCEs and MNs. In conclusion, the support of borax was especially useful in aflatoxin-toxicated blood tissue. Thus, the risk on target tissues of AFB1 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.
    Cytotechnology 04/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several lichen species have been used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and they are reported to be effective in the treatment of different disorders including ulcer and cancer. It is revealed that lichens may be easily accessible sources of natural drugs and possible food supplements after their safety evaluations. The main objective in this study was to evaluate the roles of aqueous extracts of Xanthoria elegans (at 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) upon mitomycin C (MMC; at 10(-7) M) induced genotoxic and oxidative damages in cultured human lymphocytes. X. elegans were collected from the Erzurum and Artvin provinces (in Turkey) during August 2010. After the application of MMC and X. elegans extract (XEE), separate and together, human whole blood cultures were assessed by four genotoxicity end-points including chromosomal aberration, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) assays. In addition, biochemical parameters [total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS)] were examined to determine oxidative effects. According to our results, the frequencies of cytogenetic endpoints and 8-OH-dG levels were significantly increased by MMC compared with controls in human peripheral lymphocytes. MMC caused oxidative stress by altering TAC and TOS levels. On the contrary, XEE led to increases of TAC level without changing TOS level. XEE had no genotoxic effect. Furthermore, our findings revealed that MMC induced increases in the mean frequencies of four genotoxic indices were diminished by XEE in dose dependent manner, indicating its protective role towards cells from MMC exerted injury. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study indicate for the first time that XEE is a potential source of natural antigenotoxicants.
    Cytotechnology 03/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imazalil (IMA), a commonly used fungicide in both agricultural and clinical domains, is suspected to produce serious toxic effects in vertebrates. In recent years, a number of studies have suggested that lichens might be easily accessible sources of natural drugs that could be used as a possible food supplement. Extensive research is being performed to explore the importance of lichen species, which are known to contain a variety of pharmacological active compounds. In this context, the antigenotoxic effect of aqueous Dermatocarpon intestiniforme (Körber) Hasse. extract (DIE) was studied against the genotoxic damage induced by IMA on cultured human lymphocytes (n = 6) using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) as cytogenetic endpoints. Human peripheral lymphocytes were treated in vitro with varying concentrations of DIE (0, 25, 50 and 100 μg/ml), tested in combination with IMA (336 μg/ml). DIE alone were not genotoxic and when combined with IMA treatment, it reduced the frequency of CAs and the rate of MNs. A clear dose-dependent decrease in the genotoxic damage of IMA was observed, suggesting a genoprotective role of DIE. The results of the present study suggest that this plant extract per se does not have a genotoxic potential, but can alleviate the genotoxicity of IMA on cultured human lymphocytes. In conclusion our findings may have an important application for the protection of cultured human lymphocyte from the genetic damage and side effects induced by medical and agricultural chemicals hazardous for people.
    Acta Biologica Hungarica 09/2012; 63(3):354-61. · 0.50 Impact Factor