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Antimutagenic effects of lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea (L.) Zoph. extracts against the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B-1 in vitro

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Toxicology and Industrial Health (Impact Factor: 1.71). 10/2010; 26(9):625-31. DOI: 10.1177/0748233710377779
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol, acetone, n-hexane and ether extracts obtained from Pseudovernia furfuracea on genotoxicity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in cultured human blood cells intoxicated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used for genotoxic influences estimation. In both the test systems, it was observed that P. furfuracea extracts suppressed the mutagenic effects of AFB(1) due to the type of extracts added to the cultures. Furthermore, a significant reduction in plasma TAC was observed after AFB(1) treatment. Interestingly, the methanol and acetone extracts of the lichen recovered AFB(1)-induced TAC inhibition. The order of extracts of anti-genotoxicity efficacy against AFB(1) was methanol, acetone, ether and n-hexane, respectively. In conclusion, P. furfuracea has been shown to modulate the adverse effects of AFB(1) in human blood cells for the first time.

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    • "Some recent studies have also showed that secondary metabolites from lichens induce apoptosis in colon [7] [8] and prostate [9] cancers. Lichens have long been investigated for biological activities; mainly antimicrobial but also antitumor, antiviral, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory [10], more recently, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activities [11] [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Carvacrol (CVC), a major constituent of genera Origanum and Thymus, is such a substance that has attracted attention because of its wide variety of beneficial biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer effects. However, there are limited data on the cytogenetic and antioxidant effects of CVC in cultured human blood cells. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the genetic, oxidative, and cytotoxic effects of CVC in cultured human blood cells (n = 5). Human blood cells were treated with CVC (0-200 mg/L) for 24 and 48 h and then cytotoxicity detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, while DNA damage was also analyzed by micronucleus (MN) assay, chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) level. In addition, biochemical parameters (total antioxidant capacity [TAC] and total oxidative stress [TOS]) were examined to determine the oxidative effects. The results of LDH and MTT assays showed that CVC (at concentrations above 100 mg/L) decreased cell viability. In our in vitro test systems, it was observed that CVC had no mutagenic effects on human lymphocytes. On the other hand, CVC (at 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) treatment caused statistically important (p < 0.05) increases in TAC and TOS levels (at 150 and 200 mg/L) on human lymphocytes. In conclusion, CVC can be a new resource of therapeutics as recognized in this study with their nonmutagenic and antioxidant features.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 11/2013; DOI:10.1177/0748233713506771 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, Turkez et al. (2010) found that methanol, acetone, and n-hexane extracts obtained from Pseudovernia furfuracea have antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties in human lymphocy. In these studies, the antimutagenic effects of the lichen extracts have been linked to antioxidant activity of lichens ectracts (Aslan et al., 2006; Geyikoglu et al., 2007; Kotan et al., 2011; Russo et al., 2002, 2008; Turkez et al., 2010; Zeytinoglu et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extract of of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. (CME) were studied using WP2, Ames (TA1535 and TA1537), and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems. The results of our studies showed that 5 µM concentration of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) changed the frequencies of SCE and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. When 5 and 10 µg/mL concentrations of CME was added to AFB1, the frequencies of SCE and MDA level were decreased and SOD, GSH, and GPx levels were increased. The extract CME did not show any mutagenicity on Ames (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1537) and WP2 (Escherichia coli) test systems. On the other hand, CME has antimutagenicity on the mentioned test systems. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that CME has a significant antioxidative and antigenotoxic effect, which is thought to be due to the antigenotoxic activities of antioxidant enzymes.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 11/2013; DOI:10.1177/0748233713504805 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Some recent studies have also showed that secondary metabolites from lichens induce apoptosis in colon [7] [8] and prostate [9] cancers. Lichens have long been investigated for biological activities; mainly antimicrobial but also antitumor, antiviral, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory [10], more recently, antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activities [11] [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: The aqueous extracts of Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. (Parmeliaceae) is traditionally used in many countries against a number of conditions, including inflammatory conditions. Objective: The present study aimed to assess, for the first time, the effectiveness of C. islandica in cultured primary blood cells of Type 1 diabetes subjects. Materials and methods: Diabetic and control blood samples were treated with or without aqueous lichen extract (5 and 10 μg mL(-1)) for 48 h. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes and also malondialdehyde levels in plasma were determined to evaluate the oxidative status. DNA damages were analyzed by SCE, MN and comet assays in cultured human lymphocytes. Additionally, proliferation index (PI) was evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results: There were significant increases in observed total DNA damage (comet assay) (240.2%) and SCE (168.8%), but not in MN frequencies of cultures with diabetes as compared (p > 0.05) to controls. Whereas, the significant reductions of total DNA damage (69.2 and 65.3%) and SCE frequencies (17.7 and 12.3%) were determined when the 5 and 10 mg mL(-1) lichen extract was added to the cell culture medium, respectively. However, lichen extract did not completely inhibit the induction of SCEs in lymphocytes of patients with diabetes. C. islandica extract was also useful on PI rates. Discussion: In conclusion, the antioxidant role of C. islandica in alleviating diabetes-induced genomic instability and for increasing cell viability was firstly indicated in the present study.
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