Localizing Broca's area for transcranial magnetic stimulation: Comparison of surface distance measurements and stereotaxic positioning
ABSTRACT Precise placement of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils over target regions is crucial for correct interpretation of TMS effects. Modern frameless stereotaxic systems yield high accuracy, but require extensive equipment and cannot be used in every setting, for example, during functional imaging sessions.
The aim of this study was the development of a method for TMS-coil placement based on individual imaging data without the need for external tracking devices.
We compared coil positioning over Broca's area using an advanced stereotaxic navigation system with placement according to the surface distance measurements (SDM) method. By using the SDM-method, 3-dimensional renderings adapted from individual T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were created to identify Broca's area and Broca's homologue, respectively, and to define anatomic landmarks on the skin's surface. Distances between these landmarks were used to localize the real target on the individual's head.
The mean Euclidean distance between surface positions as determined with the two methods was 8.31 mm and the mean difference of estimated virtual electric field intensity at the target point was 7.37 V/m corresponding to 4.01% of maximum field strength.
Our findings suggest that, compared with a state-of-the-art frameless stereotaxy system, the SDM-method yields a reasonable accuracy for positioning of a TMS-coil over Broca's area in terms of spatial coordinates.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Accumulating evidence from single case studies, small case series and randomized controlled trials seems to suggest that inhibitory noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) over the contralesional inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of right-handers in conjunction with speech and language therapy (SLT) improves recovery from poststroke aphasia. Application of inhibitory NIBS to improve recovery in left-handed patients has not yet been reported. Methods: A total of 29 right-handed subacute poststroke aphasics were randomized to receive either 10 sessions of SLT following 20 min of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the contralesional IFG or 10 sessions of SLT following sham stimulation; 2 left-handers were treated according to the same protocol with real rTMS. Language activation patterns were assessed with positron emission tomography prior to and after the treatment; 95% confidence intervals for changes in language performance scores and the activated brain volumes in both hemispheres were derived from TMS- and sham-treated right-handed patients and compared to the same parameters in left-handers. Results: Right-handed patients treated with rTMS showed better recovery of language function in global aphasia test scores (t test, p < 0.002) as well as in picture-naming performance (ANOVA, p = 0.03) than sham-treated right-handers. In treated right-handers, a shift of activation to the ipsilesional hemisphere was observed, while sham-treated patients consolidated network activity in the contralesional hemisphere (repeated-measures ANOVA, p = 0.009). Both left-handed patients also improved, with 1 patient within the confidence limits of TMS-treated right-handers (23 points, 15.9-28.9) and the other patient within the limits of sham-treated subjects (8 points, 2.8-14.5). Both patients exhibited only a very small interhemispheric shift, much less than expected in TMS-treated right-handers, and more or less consolidated initially active networks in both hemispheres. Conclusion: Inhibitory rTMS over the nondominant IFG appears to be a safe and effective treatment for right-handed poststroke aphasics. In the 2 cases of left-handed aphasics no deterioration of language performance was observed with this protocol. However, therapeutic efficiency is less obvious and seems to be more related to the dominance pattern prior to the stroke than to the TMS intervention. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Cerebrovascular Diseases 11/2013; 36(5-6):363-372. DOI:10.1159/000355499 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modulation of activity in language networks using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may possibly support recovery from poststroke aphasia. Case series and feasibility studies seem to indicate a therapeutic effect; however, randomized sham-controlled, proof-of-principle studies relating clinical effects to activation patterns are missing. Twenty-four patients with subacute poststroke aphasia were randomized to a 10-day protocol of 20-minute inhibitory 1 Hz rTMS over the right triangular part of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus or sham stimulation, followed by 45 minutes of speech and language therapy. Activity in language networks was measured with O-15-water positron emission tomography during verb generation before and after treatment. Language performance was assessed using the Aachen Aphasia Test battery. The primary outcome measure, global Aachen Aphasia Test score change, was significantly higher in the rTMS group (t test, P=0.003). Increases were largest for subtest naming (P=0.002) and tended to be higher for comprehension, token test, and writing (P<0.1). Patients in the rTMS group activated proportionally more voxels in the left hemisphere after treatment than before (difference in activation volume index) compared with sham-treated patients (t test, P=0.002).There was a moderate but significant linear relationship between activation volume index change and global Aachen Aphasia Test score change (r(2)=0.25; P=0.015). Ten sessions of inhibitory rTMS over the right posterior inferior frontal gyrus, in combination with speech and language therapy, significantly improve language recovery in subacute ischemic stroke and favor recruitment of left-hemispheric language networks.Stroke 06/2013; 44(8). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000574 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the right hemisphere can be engaged using Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) and excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve language function in people with aphasia. The two participants in this study (GOE and AMC) have chronic non-fluent aphasia. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) task was used to localize the right Broca's homolog area in the inferior frontal gyrus for rTMS coil placement. The treatment protocol included an rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used an excitatory stimulation method known as intermittent theta burst stimulation, and a sham-rTMS phase, which consisted of 3 treatment sessions that used a sham coil. Each treatment session was followed by 40 min of MIT. A linguistic battery was administered after each session. Our findings show that one participant, GOE, improved in verbal fluency and the repetition of phrases when treated with MIT in combination with TMS. However, AMC showed no evidence of behavioral benefit from this brief treatment trial. Post-treatment neural activity changes were observed for both participants in the left Broca's area and right Broca's homolog. These case studies indicate that a combination of MIT and rTMS applied to the right Broca's homolog has the potential to improve speech and language outcomes for at least some people with post-stroke aphasia.Frontiers in Psychology 02/2014; 5:37. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00037 · 2.80 Impact Factor