Eukaryotic cells coordinate specific responses to hormones and growth factors by spatial and temporal organization of "signaling components." Through the formation of multiprotein complexes, cells are able to generate "signaling components" that transduce hormone signals through proteins, such as PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1(PDZ)-containing proteins that associate by stable and dynamic interactions. The PDZ homology domain is a common protein interaction domain in eukaryotes and with greater than 500 PDZ domains identified, it is the most abundant protein interaction domain in eukaryotic cells. The NHERF (sodium hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor) proteins are PDZ domain-containing proteins that play an important role in maintaining and regulating cell function. NHERF-1 was initially identified as a brush border membrane-associated phosphoprotein essential for the cAMP/PKA-induced inhibition of the sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3). Mouse, rabbit and human renal proximal tubules also express NHERF-2 (E3KARP), a structurally related protein, which in model cell systems also binds NHE3 and mediates its inhibition by cAMP. PDZK1 (NHERF-3) and IKEPP (NHERF-4) were later identified and found to have similar homology domains, leading to their recent reclassification. Although studies have revealed similar binding partners and overlapping functions for the NHERF proteins, it is clear that there is a significant amount of specificity between them. This review focuses primarily on NHERF-1, as the prototypical PDZ protein and will give a brief summary of its role in phosphate transport and the development of some forms of nephrolithiasis.
"MAP17 has been found to bind NHeRF1 and NHeRF3 (PDZK1) through its PDZ-binding motif (Pribanic et al., 2003; Silver et al., 2003; Lanaspa et al., 2007). NHeRFs are scaffolding protein defined by the presence of globular PDZ domains that assemble several proteins into functional complexes (Shenolikar et al., 2004; Cunningham et al., 2010; Claperon et al., 2011). The NHeRF proteins regulate cell surface expression and functional activity of transporters (Shenolikar et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MAP17 is a small 17 kDa non-glycosylated membrane protein previously identified as being overexpressed in carcinomas. Breast tumor cells that overexpress MAP17 show an increased tumoral phenotype with enhanced proliferative capabilities both in the presence or the absence of contact inhibition, decreased apoptotic sensitivity, and increased migration. MAP17-expressing clones also grow better in nude mice. The increased malignant cell behavior induced by MAP17 is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the treatment of MAP17-expressing cells with antioxidants results in a reduction in the tumorigenic properties of these cells. The MAP17-dependent increase in ROS and tumorigenesis relies on its PDZ-binding domain because disruption of this sequence by point mutations abolishes the ability of MAP17 to enhance ROS production and tumorigenesis. MAP17 is overexpressed in a great variety of human carcinomas, including breast tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of MAP17 during cancer progression demonstrates that overexpression of the protein strongly correlates with tumoral progression. Generalized MAP17 overexpression in human carcinomas indicates that MAP17 can be a good marker for tumorigenesis and, especially, for malignant progression.
Frontiers in Oncology 09/2012; 2:112. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2012.00112
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exert patterns of cell-specific signaling and function. Mounting evidence now supports the view that cytoplasmic adapter proteins contribute critically to this behavior. Adapter proteins recognize highly conserved motifs such as those for Src homology 3 (SH3), phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB), and postsynaptic density 95/discs-large/zona occludens (PDZ) docking sequences in candidate GPCRs. Here we review the behavior of the Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF) family of PDZ adapter proteins on GPCR signalling, trafficking, and function. Structural determinants of NHERF proteins that allow them to recognize targeted GPCRs are considered. NHERF1 and NHERF2 are capable also of modifying the assembled complex of accessory proteins such as β-arrestins, which have been implicated in regulating GPCR signaling. In addition, NHERF1 and NHERF2 modulate GPCR signaling by altering the G protein to which the receptor binds or affect other regulatory proteins that affect GTPase activity, protein kinase A, phospholipase C, or modify downstream signaling events. Small molecules targeting the site of NHERF1-GPCR interaction are being developed and may become important and selective drug candidates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is critical for many biological processes, and both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have adverse clinical consequences. Only a very small percentage (1%) of total body phosphate is present in the extracellular fluid, which is measured by routine laboratory assays and does not reflect total body phosphate stores. Phosphate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the transcellular route [sodium phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b)] and across the paracellular pathway. Approximately 85% of the filtered phosphate is reabsorbed from the kidney, predominantly in the proximal tubule, by NaPi2a and NaPi2c, which are present on the brush border membrane. Renal phosphate transport is tightly regulated. Dietary phosphate intake, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are the principal regulators of phosphate reabsorption from the kidney. Recent advances in genetic techniques and animal models have identified many genetic disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Mutations in NaPi2a and NaPi2c; and hormonal dysregulation of PTH, FGF23, and Klotho, are primarily responsible for most genetic disorders of phosphate transport. The main focus of this educational review article is to discuss the genetic and clinical features of phosphate regulation disorders and provide understanding and treatment options.
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