A comprehensive analysis of pattern recognition receptors in normal and inflamed human epidermis: upregulation of dectin-1 in psoriasis.
ABSTRACT Human epidermis plays an important role in host defense by acting as a physical barrier and signaling interface between the environment and the immune system. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are crucial to maintain homeostasis and provide protection during infection, but are also causally involved in monogenic auto-inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the epidermal expression of PRRs and several associated host defense molecules in healthy human skin, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Using microarray analysis and real-time quantitative PCR, we found that many of these genes are transcribed in normal human epidermis. Only a few genes were differentially induced in psoriasis (CLEC7A (dectin-1), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, and mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1)) or AD (MRC1, IL1RN, and IL1β) compared with normal epidermis. A remarkably high expression of dectin-1 mRNA was observed in psoriatic epidermis and this was corroborated by immunohistochemistry. In cultured primary human keratinocytes, dectin-1 expression was induced by IFN-γ, IFN-α, and Th17 cytokines. Keratinocytes were unresponsive, however, to dectin-1 ligands such as β-glucan or heat-killed Candida albicans, nor did we observe synergy with TLR2/TLR5 ligands. In conclusion, upregulation of dectin-1 in psoriatic lesions seems to be under control of psoriasis-associated cytokines. Its role in the biology of skin inflammation and infection remains to be explored.
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ABSTRACT: Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection.Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 10/2013; · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the expression of dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (dectin-1) in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells infected by fungus. A total of 20 cases of healthy donor corneas were group A, and 20 patients (20 eyes) suffered from fungal keratitis (FK) composed group B. Real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect dectin-1 expression in corneal epithelium of both groups. HCE cells were cultured with aspergillus fumigatus (AF) antigens in vitro. The expression of dectin-1 mRNA was measured by real-time qPCR at the stimulation of 0, 4, 8 and 24h separately. Dectin-1 protein was detected by immunocytochemistry at 0 and 24h separately. Dectin-1 expressed in corneal epithelium of normal persons and FK patients. Vitro cellular experiment showed that the expression of dectin-1 mRNA in HCE cells began to increase after stimulation of AF antigens at 4h, and dectin-1 protein expression increased after stimulation at 24h. Dectin-1 expressed in corneal epithelium of normal persons. AF antigens stimulation can elevate the expression of dectin-1 in HCE cells in vitro.International Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2014; 7(1):34-7. · 0.50 Impact Factor
Article: Oral Colonization of Fungi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Opportunistic microbes are able to exist as commensals or pathogens depending on local environmental conditions. The bacterial microbiome at mucosal sites (gut, oral and vaginal) has been well characterized but there has been less focus on the fungal component of the microbiome, the “mycobiome”, especially of the oral mucosa. Genomic characterization studies have shown that Candida species are the most prevalent fungal species in the mycobiomes of the murine gut and human oral cavity, with C. albicans being the most abundant fungal species in the oral cavity. In this review, we outline recent advances in the characterization of the oral mycobiome, how different Candida species colonize, invade and infect the oral cavity, and how epithelial surfaces play a key role in antifungal activity and discriminate between commensal and pathogenic Candida.Current Fungal Infection Reports 06/2013; 7(2).