Article

A role for learning in population divergence of mate preferences.

Section for Animal Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden.
Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.66). 11/2010; 64(11):3101-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01085.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Learning and other forms of phenotypic plasticity have been suggested to enhance population divergence. Mate preferences can develop by learning, and species recognition might not be entirely genetic. We present data on female mate preferences of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) that suggest a role for learning in population divergence and species recognition. Populations of this species are either allopatric or sympatric with a phenotypically similar congener (C. virgo). These two species differ mainly in the amount of wing melanization in males, and wing patches thus mediate sexual isolation. In sympatry, sexually experienced females discriminate against large melanin wing patches in heterospecific males. In contrast, in allopatric populations within the same geographic region, females show positive ("open-ended") preferences for such large wing patches. Virgin C. splendens females do not discriminate against heterospecific males. Moreover, physical exposure experiments of such virgin females to con- or hetero-specific males significantly influences their subsequent mate preferences. Species recognition is thus not entirely genetic and it is partly influenced by interactions with mates. Learning causes pronounced population divergence in mate preferences between these weakly genetically differentiated populations, and results in a highly divergent pattern of species recognition at a small geographic scale.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Anna Runemark, Jun 20, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
136 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adaptive radiations have long served as living libraries to study the build-up of species richness, however, they do not provide good models for radiations that exhibit negligible adaptive disparity. Here we review work on damselflies to argue that non-adaptive mechanisms were predominant in the radiation of this group and have driven species divergence through sexual selection arising from male–female mating interactions. Three damselfly genera (Calopteryx, Enallagma and Ischnura) are highlighted and the extent of (i) adaptive ecological divergence in niche use and (ii) non-adaptive differentiation in characters associated with reproduction (e.g. sexual morphology and behaviours) evaluated. We demonstrate that species diversification in the genus Calopteryx is caused by non-adaptive divergence in colouration and behaviour affecting premating isolation, and structural differentiation in reproductive morphology affecting postmating isolation. Similarly, the vast majority of diversification events in the sister genera Enallagma and Ischnura are entirely driven by differentiation in genital structures used in species recognition. The finding that closely related species can show negligible ecological differences yet are completely reproductively isolated suggests that the evolution of reproductive isolation can be uncoupled from niche-based divergent natural selection, challenging traditional niche models of species coexistence.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Evolutionary Applications 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/eva.12269 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mate preferences can vary in the direction of the preference, as well as the strength of the preference, and both direction and strength of preference are known to be plastic in many species. Preferences might have a learned component, and current and past social context may influence an individual's choosiness. In the damselfly species Calopteryx splendens, females increase the strength of their mate preferences with sexual experience. Here we show that sexually naïve females selectively respond to conspecific courtship as soon as physical contact has been established, suggesting a role for tactile cues perceived through interspecific morphological differences in secondary reproductive traits. In addition our data also shows that males and females selectively respond to the intensity of the courtship of the potential, conspecific mate, while ignoring such information in heterospecific potential mates. These results underscore that mate choice is the result of dynamic interactions between the sexes, where both current and past information are integrated.
    Behavioural Processes 11/2014; 109. DOI:10.1016/j.beproc.2014.08.023 · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Character displacement (CD) is the evolutionary process which leads to the divergence in trait expression of closely related species in regions where species co-occur, compared to allopatric populations. In Europe CD has been investigated in males of Calopteryx splendens and C. virgo and has been related to species recognition. If species recognition is relevant for males, also females should benefit from CD. The most obvious differences between females of these two species are wing profile and colour. We sampled females from allopatric and from sympatric populations with different relative abundances of these species. Wing shape and pigmentation were evaluated for each damselfly. CD was found in wing profile but not in wing transparency. The relative abundance of species significantly affected CD, but with a different pattern in each species. The prediction that wing shape become more different from the allopatric state when the species was relatively rare, but more similar to the allopatric state when the species was common was evident only for C. splendens. Wing shape changes might increase differences in flying patterns making males more effective to discriminate between heterospecific females. So, CD we observed may be the result of a selection directed to reduce interspecific reproductive interference.
    Evolutionary Ecology 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10682-014-9711-1 · 2.37 Impact Factor