Sulf-2: An extracellular modulator of cell signaling and a cancer target candidate

University of California, Department of Anatomy and Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, 94143, USA.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (Impact Factor: 4.9). 09/2010; 14(9):935-49. DOI: 10.1517/14728222.2010.504718
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Importance of the field: Sulf-1 and Sulf-2 are sulfatases that edit the sulfation status of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the outside of cells and regulate a number of critical signaling pathways. The Sulfs are dysregulated in many cancers with Sulf-2 in particular implicated as a driver of carcinogenesis in NSCLC, pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Areas covered in this review: This review describes the novel activity of the Sulfs in altering the sulfation pattern of HSPG chains on the outside of cells. Thereby, the Sulfs can change the binding of growth factors to these chains and can either promote (e.g., Wnt) or inhibit (e.g., fibroblast growth factor-2) signaling. The review focuses on the widespread upregulation of both Sulfs in cancers and summarizes the evidence that Sulf-2 promotes the transformed behavior of several types of cancer cells in vitro as well as their tumorigenicity in vivo. What the reader will gain: Sulf-2 is a bonafide candidate as a cancer-causing agent in NSCLC and other cancers in which it is upregulated. Take home message: Sulf-2 is an extracellular enzyme and as such would be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC and other cancers.

  • Source
    • "Heparan sulfate can also be modified by editing enzymes, such as 6-O-endo-sulfatases and heparanase (Ai et al., 2003; Ilan et al., 2006; Xu et al., 2007). The extracellular 6-O-endo-sulfatases, Sulf1 and Sulf2, selectively remove sulfate groups from the carbon 6 positions (Lamanna et al., 2008; Rosen and Lemjabbar-Alaoui, 2010; Nagamine et al., 2012), while heparanase cleaves HS chains from the protein core, generating free HS (Bernfield et al., 1999; Galvis et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex and highly variable polysaccharide, expressed ubiquitously on the cell surface as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and found in the extracellular matrix as free HS fragments. Its heterogeneity due to various acetylation and sulfation patterns endows a multitude of functions. In animal tissues, HS interacts with a wide range of proteins to mediate numerous biological activities; given its multiple roles in inflammation processes, characterization of HS in human serum has significant potential for elucidating disease mechanisms. Historically, investigation of HS was limited by its low concentration in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix. In this study, we used a modified mass spectrometry method to examine HS disaccharide profiles in the serum of 50 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared our results to 51 sera from healthy women. Using various purification methods and online LC-MS/MS, we discovered statistically significant differences in the sulfation and acetylation patterns between populations. Since early diagnosis of RA is considered important in decelerating the disease’s progression, identification of specific biomolecule characterizations may provide crucial information towards developing new therapies for suppressing the disease in its early stages. This is the first report of potential glycosaminoglycan biomarkers for RA found in human sera, while acknowledging the obvious fact that a larger population set, and more stringent collection parameters, will need to be investigated in the future.
    Matrix Biology 09/2014; 40. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2014.08.016 · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteoglycans, key molecular effectors of cell surface and pericellular microenvironments, perform multiple functions in cancer and angiogenesis by virtue of their polyhedric nature and their ability to interact with both ligands and receptors that regulate neoplastic growth and neovascularization. Some proteoglycans such as perlecan, have pro- and anti-angiogenic activities, whereas other proteoglycans, such as syndecans and glypicans, can also directly affect cancer growth by modulating key signalling pathways. The bioactivity of these proteoglycans is further modulated by several classes of enzymes within the tumour microenvironment: (i) sheddases that cleave transmembrane or cell-associated syndecans and glypicans, (ii) various proteinases that cleave the protein core of pericellular proteoglycans and (iii) heparanases and endosulfatases which modify the structure and bioactivity of various heparan sulphate proteoglycans and their bound growth factors. In contrast, some of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans, such as decorin and lumican, act as tumour repressors by physically antagonizing receptor tyrosine kinases including the epidermal growth factor and the Met receptors or integrin receptors thereby evoking anti-survival and pro-apoptotic pathways. In this review we will critically assess the expanding repertoire of molecular interactions attributed to various proteoglycans and will discuss novel proteoglycan functions modulating cancer progression, invasion and metastasis and how these factors regulate the tumour microenvironment.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 12/2010; 15(5):1013-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01236.x · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of the relationship between the complex structures and numerous physiological functions of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) has continued to thrive in the past decade. Though it is clear that the monosaccharide sequences of these polysaccharides must determine their ability to modulate the action of growth factors, morphogens, chemokines, cytokines, and many other extracellular proteins, the exact details of this dependence still prove elusive. Sequence determines the 3D structure of GAGs at more than one level; detailed sequences of highly sulfated regions may influence affinity for specific proteins in some cases, but in addition attention has been called to the importance of the length and spacing of these highly sulfated sequences, which are separated by unsulfated domains. Within the sulfated “S-domains”, the internal dynamics of the conformationally flexible iduronate pyranose ring have continued to interest NMR spectroscopists and molecular modelers. New studies of the relative degrees of flexibility of sulfated and unsulfated domains lead to an overall model of heparin/HS in which protein-binding, highly sulfated S-domains with well-defined conformations are separated by more flexible NA-domains.
    Pure and Applied Chemistry 01/2011; 84(1). DOI:10.1351/PAC-CON-11-10-27 · 3.11 Impact Factor
Show more


Available from