Surfactant administration for neonatal respiratory distress does not improve lung interstitial fluid clearance: echographic and experimental evidence.
ABSTRACT Recent ultrasonographic studies suggest that the administration of surfactant to preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) does not affect lung water clearance. The purpose of the study was also to look at clearance of lung water in preterm rabbits receiving surfactant.
Lung ultrasound was performed in 73 neonates at different gestational ages (range 23-34 weeks) with radiological and clinical signs of RDS, before and after surfactant administration. In premature rabbits (28-29 days' gestational age), either receiving or not receiving surfactant, we followed the time course of lung water balance considering the wet weight/dry weight ratio, the morphology and compliance of alveoli and pulmonary interstitial pressure.
In all RDS infants lung ultrasound images consistently showed a generalized increase in extravascular lung fluid which remained unchanged after surfactant administration and did not affect the rate of fluid clearance. Surfactant administration in premature rabbits did not improve the time course of lung fluid clearance.
Data from ultrasound in preterm babies are confirmed by animal experiments.
- Chest 03/2011; 139(3):730-1. DOI:10.1378/chest.10-2338 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The initiation of ventilation in preterm, surfactant-deficient sheep without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) causes airway injury and lung inflammation. We hypothesized that PEEP and surfactant treatment would decrease the lung injury from initiation of ventilation with high tidal volumes. Fetal sheep at 128-day gestational age were randomized to ventilation with: 1) no PEEP, no surfactant; 2) 8-cmH(2)O PEEP, no surfactant; 3) no PEEP + surfactant; 4) 8-cmH(2)O PEEP + surfactant; or 5) control (2-cmH(2)O continuous positive airway pressure) (n = 6-7/group). After maternal anesthesia and hysterotomy, the head and chest were exteriorized, and the fetus was intubated. While maintaining placental circulation, the fetus was ventilated for 15 min with a tidal volume escalating to 15 ml/kg using heated, humidified, 100% nitrogen. The fetus then was returned to the uterus, and tissue was collected after 30 min for evaluation of early markers of lung injury. Lambs receiving both surfactant and PEEP had increased dynamic compliance, increased static lung volumes, and decreased total protein and heat shock proteins 70 and 60 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with other groups. Ventilation, independent of PEEP or surfactant, increased mRNA expression of acute phase response genes and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in the lung tissue compared with controls. PEEP decreased mRNA for cytokines (2-fold) compared with groups receiving no PEEP. Surfactant administration further decreased some cytokine mRNAs and changed the distribution of early growth response protein-1 expression. The use of PEEP during initiation of ventilation at birth decreased early mediators of lung injury. Surfactant administration changed the distribution of injury and had a moderate additive protective effect.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 08/2011; 301(5):L712-20. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00157.2011 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research on the mental health needs of maltreated youth in out-of-home care remains limited. The goal of the current study was to examine two common mental health concerns (i.e., depression, substance use) among 122 12–15year olds in out-of-home placements. Specifically, we investigated potential risk and protective factors among socio-demographic, maltreatment, youth, family, and community variables. We relied on data collected through the AAR-C2, a Canadian needs assessment and outcome monitoring tool. Approximately 4 in 10 (39.2%) youth endorsed at least one mental health problem, which we defined as the youth scoring at least one standard deviation above the sample mean for the depression items and the youth indicating the presence of alcohol and/or substance use over the past year. Almost 1 in 10 (8.3%) reported struggling with both mental health issues. Results from logistic regressions indicated that adolescent females were at higher risk of experiencing depression than males, and increasing age was associated with increased risk for substance use. Turning to protective factors, results indicated that the greater the perceived quality of the youth–caregiver relationship, the lower the risk for mental health difficulties (i.e., depression, substance use). Moreover, participation in extracurricular activities appeared to protect youth against depression or substance use. Results imply that the youth–caregiver relationship and involvement in extracurricular activities are important areas to consider to promote the well-being of maltreated youth in out-of-home care.Children and Youth Services Review 11/2011; 33(11):2127-2137. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.06.019 · 1.27 Impact Factor