Surfactant administration for neonatal respiratory distress does not improve lung interstitial fluid clearance: echographic and experimental evidence.
ABSTRACT Recent ultrasonographic studies suggest that the administration of surfactant to preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) does not affect lung water clearance. The purpose of the study was also to look at clearance of lung water in preterm rabbits receiving surfactant.
Lung ultrasound was performed in 73 neonates at different gestational ages (range 23-34 weeks) with radiological and clinical signs of RDS, before and after surfactant administration. In premature rabbits (28-29 days' gestational age), either receiving or not receiving surfactant, we followed the time course of lung water balance considering the wet weight/dry weight ratio, the morphology and compliance of alveoli and pulmonary interstitial pressure.
In all RDS infants lung ultrasound images consistently showed a generalized increase in extravascular lung fluid which remained unchanged after surfactant administration and did not affect the rate of fluid clearance. Surfactant administration in premature rabbits did not improve the time course of lung fluid clearance.
Data from ultrasound in preterm babies are confirmed by animal experiments.
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ABSTRACT: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has become more and more popular in the first decade of the 21(st) century, both in neonatal and in pediatric age groups. Several papers addressed the usefulness of this procedure mainly because of its possibility to be utilised at the bedside, without risk of irradiation along with simple and immediate interpretations of the images. The purpose of this paper is to update the knowledge on LUS related to the most common neonatal respiratory diseases and some pediatric acute lung diseases. We describe the technique of LUS execution, the normal LUS appearance and the LUS findings in the most common neonatal and pediatric acute diseases. LUS findings related to neonates of different gestational age as well as of pediatric patients from infancy to childhood are shown. Issues on the evolution and effect of treatment related to LUS findings of neonatal and pediatric respiratory diseases are discussed. LUS depicted peculiar and reproducible patterns in all the lung diseases described. The use of LUS in the clinical field seems to be a reasonable and easy-to-use practice that can be considered an extension of the clinical exam. As a consequence of this feature, LUS, to fully express its potential, must be performed by the clinician in charge of the patient.Early human development 06/2013; 89S1:S17-S19. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chest ultrasound is a useful diagnostic tool in adult emergency medicine. Echography does not generate a clear image of the lung but is able to generate artifacts that are combined in disease-specific profiles. Reflections of the pleural image appear as short straight lines also known as A-lines. Vertical, comet-tail artifacts departing from the pleura are named B-lines. The former are present in the normal lung while the latter have been described in the adult wet lung. Lung ultrasonography outperforms conventional radiology in the emergency diagnosis of pneumothorax and pleural effusions. Neonatologists and pediatricians are now adapting lung ultrasound to their specific clinical issues. The normal image is relatively unchanged throughout the age span, while progressively fading B-lines describe the fluid-to-air transition of the neonatal lung. Also, an homogeneous white (hyperechogenic) lung with pleural image abnormalities and absence of spared areas is accurate in diagnosing Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). The prevalence of A-lines in the upper lung fields with B-lines at the bottom fields (aka double lung point artifact) is highly sensitive and specific in describing Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn. Infantile pneumonia has recently been proved an accurate diagnosis by ultrasound after a short training. In summary, chest ultrasonography has no ground to replace conventional chest radiology tout court. However, when appropriately applied, a lung ultrasound scan can save time and radiation exposure to achieve a critical diagnosis.08/2013;
- Pediatric Radiology 03/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor