Challenges to screening and evaluation of memory impairment among Hispanic elders in a primary care safety net facility
ABSTRACT Implement a memory impairment screening procedure for elderly Hispanic primary care patients, and analyze its yield and challenges to further triage and diagnostic evaluation.
Three hundred twenty nine Hispanic patients aged ≥60 years or proxy informants were enrolled from outpatient primary care clinics at an urban safety-net medical center. Patients were screened for memory impairment using the WHO-UCLA AVLT; for those without consent capacity, proxies were given the IQCODE. Bilingual research assistants conducted in-person or telephone screening. Age, gender, education, comorbidities, acculturation, overall health, access to care, and memory concerns were assessed as potential predictors of memory impairment. Based on identified implementation challenges, a multi-disciplinary stakeholder committee proposed revised approaches to increase diagnostic evaluation and sustainability.
Of 677 eligible patients approached, 329 (49%) were screened, and 77 (23%) met criteria for memory impairment using the WHO-UCLA AVLT (N=60) or the IQCODE (N=17). Only male gender and higher comorbidity uniquely predicted memory impairment (ps<0.05). Few screen-positive patients declined further triage and evaluation, but a substantial proportion could not be subsequently contacted. Challenges to implementing a memory screening program included staff time and adequate clinic space for in-person screening; challenges to follow-up of positive screening results included inability to contact patients and lack of primary care continuity to facilitate further triage and referral.
Nearly one-fourth of primary care Hispanic elders screened as memory-impaired, but few factors predicted positive screening. Stakeholder-guided adaptations are needed-particularly in resource-constrained settings-to overcome challenges to further diagnostic evaluation and referral.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness and costs of telephone-only approach to in-person plus telephone for delivering an evidence-based, coordinated care management program for dementia. We randomized 151 patient-caregiver dyads from an underserved predominantly Latino community to two arms that shared a care management protocol but implemented in different formats: in-person visits at home and/or in the community plus telephone and mail, versus telephone and mail only. We compared between-arm caregiver burden and care-recipient problem behaviors (primary outcomes) and patient-caregiver dyad retention, care quality, health care utilization, and costs (secondary outcomes) at 6- and 12-months follow-up. Care quality improved substantially over time in both arms. Caregiver burden, care-recipient problem behaviors, retention, and health care utilization did not differ across arms but the in-person program cost more to deliver. Dementia care quality improved regardless of how care management was delivered; large differences in effectiveness or cost offsets were not detected. © The Author(s) 2015.Journal of Aging and Health 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/0898264315569454 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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