Pallidopyramidal disease: a misnomer?
ABSTRACT The combination of recessive early-onset parkinsonism and pyramidal tract signs caused by pallidopyramidal degeneration is known as pallidopyramidal disease or syndrome (PPD/S). We investigated whether patients diagnosed as Davison's PPD/S showed any definite proof of pyramidal and pallidal involvement, without findings suggestive of other nosological entities. Since Davison's original description, 15 other PPD/S cases have been reported, yet all lack proof of pyramidal or pallidal degeneration. Because of the dopa-responsiveness in all patients subsequent to Davison's report, we argue that these patients probably suffered from early-onset nigral parkinsonism or dopa-responsive dsystonia, rather than pallidal parkinsonism; in such cases, the presumed pyramidal Babinski could be a pseudobabinski ("striatal toe"). Secondary pallidopyramidal syndromes do occur, for example, in multiple system atrophy or Wilson's disease, but in these patients additional findings indicate diseases other than Davison's PPD/S. We conclude that the existence of PPD/S as a distinct clinico-pathological nosological entity, as proposed by Davison, is doubtful. In cases reported as Davison's PPD/S, the description "pallidopyramidal" seems to be a misnomer.
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ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FTDP) is a major neurodegenerative syndrome, particularly for those with symptoms beginning before age 65 years. A spectrum of degenerative disorders can present as sporadic or familial FTDP. Mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT; OMIM +157140) on chromosome 17 have been found in many kindreds with familial FTDP. Several other kindreds with FTDP had been linked to chromosome 17, but they had ubiquitin-positive inclusions rather than tauopathy pathology and no mutations in MAPT. This conundrum was solved in 2006 with the identification of mutations in the gene encoding progranulin (PGRN; OMIM *138945), which is only 1.7 Mb centromeric to MAPT on chromosome 17. In this review, we compare and contrast the demographic, clinical, radiologic, neuropathologic, genetic, and pathophysiologic features in patients with FTDP linked to mutations in MAPT and PGRN, highlighting the many similarities but also a few important differences. Our findings describe an intriguing oddity of nature in which 2 genes can cause a similar phenotype through apparently different mechanisms yet reside so near to each other on the same chromosome.Archives of neurology 05/2008; 65(4):460-4. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dystonia is a state of continuous contraction of groups of agonist and antagonist muscles resulting in a sustained abnormal posture. Dopa-responsive dystonia was first described in 1976 by Segawa. Patients typically have diurnal variation of their symptoms with worsening at the end of the day and a dramatic response to low-dose L-dopa. This report presents five consecutive children with dopa-responsive dystonia who were misdiagnosed initially as spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, intractable epilepsy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, or a neurodegenerative disorder. There were two males and three females aged 3-13 years (mean 8.6 years). They were monitored for up to 2 years (mean 14.8 months). One had focal, one axial, one segmental, and two generalized dystonia. The dystonia was paroxysmal in two (tiptoe walking and opisthotonus), and all had a progressive course. All children responded dramatically to L-dopa (mean 200 mg/day), including three who were wheelchair-bound for several years. The difficulties in early diagnosis, variability of clinical presentation, and dramatic response to L-dopa will be illustrated. To conclude, dopa-responsive dystonia should be considered in any child who presents with paroxysmal or progressive hypertonia of unknown etiology, because it responds so dramatically to L-dopa.Pediatric Neurology 11/2004; 31(4):298-303. · 1.42 Impact Factor