Hypothesis: Kisspeptin Mediates Male Hypogonadism in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
ABSTRACT Hypogonadism occurs commonly in men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and severe obesity. Current evidence points to a decreased secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and thereby decreased secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland as a central feature of the pathophysiology in these men. Hyperglycaemia, inflammation, leptin and oestrogen-related feedback have been proposed to make aetiological contributions to the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of T2DM. However, the neuroendocrine signals that link these factors with modulation of GnRH neurons have yet to be identified. Kisspeptins play a central role in the modulation of GnRH secretion and, thus, downstream regulation of gonadotropins and testosterone secretion in men. Inactivating mutations of the kisspeptin receptor have been shown to cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in man, whilst an activating mutation is associated with precocious puberty. Data from studies in experimental animals link kisspeptin expression with individual factors known to regulate GnRH secretion, including hyperglycaemia, inflammation, leptin and oestrogen. We therefore hypothesise that decreased endogenous kisspeptin secretion is the common central pathway that links metabolic and endocrine factors in the pathology of testosterone deficiency seen in men with obesity and T2DM. We propose that the kisspeptin system plays a central role in integrating a range of metabolic inputs, thus constituting the link between energy status with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and put forward potential clinical studies to test the hypothesis.
- SourceAvailable from: Richard A Anderson
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- "Men with type 2 diabetes often have low testosterone concentrations, and inappropriately low LH indicating a hypothalamic/pituitary basis (George et al., 2010). As with hypothalamic amenorrhoea, increasing LH secretion by administration of kisspeptin might therefore have therapeutic potential. "
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The discovery of kisspeptin as key central regulator of GnRH secretion has led to a new level of understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human reproduction. The related discovery of the kisspeptin-neurokinin B-dynorphin (KNDy) pathway in the last decade has further strengthened our understanding of the modulation of GnRH secretion by endocrine, metabolic and environmental inputs. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the physiological roles of these novel neuropeptides, and discuss the clinical relevance of these discoveries and their potential translational applications.METHODSA systematic literature search was performed using PUBMED for all English language articles up to January 2014. In addition, the reference lists of all relevant original research articles and reviews were examined. This review focuses mainly on published human studies but also draws on relevant animal data.RESULTSKisspeptin is a principal regulator of the secretion of gonadotrophins, and through this key role it is critical for the onset of puberty, the regulation of sex steroid-mediated feedback and the control of adult fertility. Although there is some sexual dimorphism, both neuroanatomically and functionally, these functions are apparent in both men and women. Kisspeptin acts upstream of GnRH and, following paracrine stimulatory and inhibitory inputs from neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neuropeptides), signals directly to GnRH neurones to control pulsatile GnRH release. When administered to humans in different isoforms, routes and doses, kisspeptin robustly stimulates LH secretion and LH pulse frequency. Manipulation of the KNDy system is currently the focus of translational research with the possibility of future clinical application to regulate LH pulsatility, increasing gonadal sex steroid secretion in reproductive disorders characterized by decreased LH pulsatility, including hypothalamic amenorrhoea and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Conversely there may be scope to reduce the activity of the KNDy system to reduce LH secretion where hypersecretion of LH adds to the phenotype, such as in polycystic ovary syndrome.CONCLUSIONS Kisspeptin is a recently discovered neuromodulator that controls GnRH secretion mediating endocrine and metabolic inputs to the regulation of human reproduction. Manipulation of kisspeptin signalling has the potential for novel therapies in patients with pathologically low or high LH pulsatility.Human Reproduction Update 03/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1093/humupd/dmu009 · 10.17 Impact Factor
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- "metabolic inputs known to regulate GnRH secretion (  , for reviews). Derangements of the HPG axis are often associated with metabolic disorders. "
ABSTRACT: Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins), along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4). High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM) significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM). Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.International Journal of Endocrinology 12/2013; 2013(1):684659. DOI:10.1155/2013/684659 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The efficiencies of IFN-α based therapy in chronic genotype 1b HCV patients are still unsatisfied to date. The mechanisms underlining treatment failure remain unclear and controversial. To investigate HCV sequence evolution in unsuccessfully treated genotype 1b patients before, during and after the therapy, full-length open-reading-frame of HCV genomes at week 0, week 48 and year 5 in one breakthrough and one nonresponse patients were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-nested-PCR and sequenced. Mutations were scored and analyzed according to their locations in the HCV genome. HCV sequences in the breakthrough patient displayed significantly more mutations during the one-year therapy than that in the nonresponse patient, with p7 and NS2 encoding regions having the highest mutation rates. Most of the mutations selected during the therapy phase in the breakthrough patient were maintained and few new mutations arose in the four-year post-therapy phase, suggesting these mutations might not compromise viral fitness. Altogether our data suggest that mutations occurred during the therapy phase in the breakthrough patient are likely driven by the action of interferon and ribavirin, and these mutations may have important effects on the responses to interferon based therapy in genotype 1b HCV patients.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 12/2010; 11(2):382-90. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2010.11.011 · 3.02 Impact Factor