Effects of protopanaxdiol (PDG) and protopanaxatriol (PTG) types of ginsenosides isolated from the leaves of American ginseng on porcine pancreatic lipase activity were determined in vitro. PDG inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity in a dose-dependent manner at the concentrations of 0.25-1mg/ml. It inhibited hydrolysis of about 83.2% of triolein at about 1mg/ml of PDG. However, PTG showed no inhibitory activity. Therefore, anti-obesity activity of PDG was evaluated in mice fed a high-fat diet. The results demonstrated that PDG was effective in preventing and healing obesity, fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in mice fed with a high-fat diet.
"Inflammation causes alteration of lipid metabolism that, in turn, makes worse the inflammatory response by leading to a malicious cycle (Hotamisligil 2006; Khovidhunkit et al. 2004). Improvement of lipid metabolism disorders was beneficial to recovering from inflammation, and, in turn, the anti-inflammatory effect of Panax notoginseng saponins maintained a balanced lipid metabolism (Liu et al. 2010). The PDs and PTs ginsenosides combination obstructed the vicious cycle via regulation of lipid profiles in the plasma and liver as well as the anti-inflammatory response. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides, bioactive compounds of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer, are divided into protopanaxadiol (PD) and protopanaxtriol (PT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of different PD and PT combination ratios on liver inflammation and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic apo E KO mice. R1 (PD/PT = 1, high Rg(1) and Rb(1)) and R2 (PD/PT = 2, high Re and Rd) extracts were intraperitoneally injected by 100 mg/kg/day at the 8th week. R1 and R2 improved atherogenic indices by increasing HDL and lowering total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglyceride (TG) selectively. R1 decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) level in plasma and liver tissue of hyperlipidemic mice, and R2 lowered plasma malondialdehyde(MDA) level. R1 and R2 not only regulated the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, IκB-α, phopho-ERK 1/2, and phopho-SAPK/JNK levels but also were significantly effective in blocking apoptotic signals, such as caspase-8, -9, as well as the cleavage of PARP in liver. Different combinational treatment of PD and PT extracts might ameliorate the liver inflammation and apoptosis in hyperlipidemic apo E KO mice, which is atherosclerotic animal model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides, which are active compounds found in ginseng (Panax ginseng), are used as antidiabetic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine whether Rb2, a type of ginsenoside, regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) in hyperlipidemic conditions used as an in vitro model of type 2 diabetes. Considering these results, we concluded that Rb2 may inhibit palmitate-induced gluconeogenesis via AMPK-induced SHP by relieving ER stress, a cause of gluconeogenesis.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2011; 34(7):1201-8. DOI:10.1007/s12272-011-0719-6 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major health concern of modern times and should be considered a global epidemic. Conventional or allopathic medicines used to treat obesity have high abuse potential and frequently exhibit side effects. Few botanicals included in natural weight loss products have been thoroughly researched on a basic and clinical level and it is imperative that this be done to validate their widespread consumption for weight management. Many natural weight loss products are sold and used globally with no (or very little) proof of efficacy or quality, and concerns regarding safety have surfaced with good reason. The continued search for new therapies has revealed multiple targets to combat obesity and highly complex plant extracts are ideally suited to fulfil a multi-targeted approach. This review explores targets for anti-obesity treatment and contains a comprehensive, yet succinct, overview of the phytochemistry and scientific evidence collated for 50 commercially important plants that have been investigated in vivo and/or clinically for their anti-obesity effects.
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