Anti-Obesity effects of protopanaxdiol types of Ginsenosides isolated from the leaves of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) in mice fed with a high-fat diet
ABSTRACT Effects of protopanaxdiol (PDG) and protopanaxatriol (PTG) types of ginsenosides isolated from the leaves of American ginseng on porcine pancreatic lipase activity were determined in vitro. PDG inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity in a dose-dependent manner at the concentrations of 0.25-1mg/ml. It inhibited hydrolysis of about 83.2% of triolein at about 1mg/ml of PDG. However, PTG showed no inhibitory activity. Therefore, anti-obesity activity of PDG was evaluated in mice fed a high-fat diet. The results demonstrated that PDG was effective in preventing and healing obesity, fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in mice fed with a high-fat diet.
SourceAvailable from: Xiao-Dong Liu
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ABSTRACT: Objective Ginsenosides, major bioactive constituents in Panax ginseng, have been shown to exert anti-hyperlipidemia effects. However, the underlying mechanism were not well-elucidated due to the low bioavailability of ginsenosides. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was considered to be a critical regulator of energy homeostasis. Our previous studies have showed that ginseng total saponins (GTS) exhibited antidiabetic effects partly via modulating GLP-1 release. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of GLP-1 in anti-hyperlipidemia effect of GTS in rats fed with high-fat diet. Material and Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with normal diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks. Then, the HFD rats orally received vehicle (HFD), 150 mg/kg/day (HFD-GL) and 300 mg/kg/day of GTS (HFD-GH) for another 4 weeks, respectively. Results Four-week GTS treatment significantly ameliorated hyperlipidemia, decreased body fat, liver weight and improved insulin resistance. It was found that high-dose GTS treatment increased portal GLP-1 level induced by glucose loading, accompanied by increased intestinal GLP-1 content, L-cell number and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA expression. Data from NCI-H716 cells showed that both GTS and ginsenoside Rb1 significantly increased GLP-1 secretion as well as proglucagon mRNA level in NCI-H716 cells supplemented with 10% HFD-rat serum. Conclusions Hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance were attenuated effectively in response to GTS treatment. These improvements may be associated with the increased secretion of GLP-1.Metabolism 10/2014; 63(10). DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.06.015 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. High hydrostatic pressure, a non-thermal food processing technique, increases extraction efficiency without destroying heat-sensitive bioactive constituents. This study investigated effects of high hydrostatic pressure extract of ginseng (PEG) and hot water extract of ginseng (WEG) on obesity and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet. The contents of total phenolics, saponins and acidic polysaccharides of PEG were higher than those of WEG. PEG reduced the body weight and white adipose tissue mass. PEG increased faecal triacylglycerol, whereas WEG did not. PEG reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes such as PPARγ and aP2. The mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory genes such as TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 were down-regulated by the PEG, whereas WEG did not. These results suggest PEG may have more beneficial effects on obesity and inflammation than WEG, partially mediated by increase of faecal triacylglycerol and regulation of gene expression.Journal of Functional Foods 09/2014; 10:169–177. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.06.007 · 4.48 Impact Factor