Serum Levels of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) are Independent Correlates of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Subjects
ABSTRACT Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) evoke oxidative stress generation and inflammatory reactions, thus being involved in vascular complications in diabetes. Since oxidative stress and inflammation impair insulin actions as well, it is conceivable that AGEs may play some role in insulin resistance. However, there is no clinical study to examine the relationship between serum levels of AGEs and insulin resistance. This study investigated whether serum AGE levels were independent correlates of insulin resistance in humans.
Three hundred twenty-two nondiabetic Japanese subjects (216 male and 106 female; mean age 61.5 ± 9.1 years) underwent a complete history and physical examination, determinations of blood chemistries, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including AGEs. Serum AGE levels were examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Mean serum AGE levels were 8.96 ± 2.57 U/mL. In univariate analysis, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure (BP), mean BP, AGEs, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (inversely), hemoglobin A1c (GHb), creatinine clearance, uric acid, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly associated with insulin resistance evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. After performing multiple regression analysis, waist circumference (P < 0.001), GHb (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.001), and AGEs (P < 0.01) still remained significant independently. When age-adjusted HOMA-IR levels stratified by AGE tertiles were compared using ANCOVA, a significant trend was demonstrated in both males and females.
The present study demonstrated for the first time that serum AGE levels were one of the independent correlates of HOMA-IR index, thus suggesting that AGEs may play some pathological role in insulin resistance in humans.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Nobuhiro Tahara, Oct 18, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a very complex and multifactorial metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance and β cell failure leading to elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia is suggested to be the main cause of diabetic complications, which not only decrease life quality and expectancy, but are also becoming a problem regarding the financial burden for health care systems. Therefore, and to counteract the continually increasing prevalence of diabetes, understanding the pathogenesis, the main risk factors, and the underlying molecular mechanisms may establish a basis for prevention and therapy. In this regard, research was performed revealing further evidence that oxidative stress has an important role in hyperglycemia-induced tissue injury as well as in early events relevant for the development of T2DM. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a group of modified proteins and/or lipids with damaging potential, is one contributing factor. On the one hand it has been reported that AGEs increase reactive oxygen species formation and impair antioxidant systems, on the other hand the formation of some AGEs is induced per se under oxidative conditions. Thus, AGEs contribute at least partly to chronic stress conditions in diabetes. As AGEs are not only formed endogenously, but also derive from exogenous sources, i.e., food, they have been assumed as risk factors for T2DM. However, the role of AGEs in the pathogenesis of T2DM and diabetic complications-if they are causal or simply an effect-is only partly understood. This review will highlight the involvement of AGEs in the development and progression of T2DM and their role in diabetic complications.03/2015; 5(1):194-222. DOI:10.3390/biom5010194
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that red and processed meat consumption is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clearly understood which components of red and processed meat contribute to this increased risk. This review examines potential mechanisms addressing the role of saturated fatty acid, sodium, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitrates/nitrites, heme iron, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), branched amino acids (BCAAs) and endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in the development of type 2 diabetes based on data from published clinical trials and animal models. TMAO which is derived from dietary carnitine and choline by the action of bacterial enzymes followed by oxidation in the liver may be a strong candidate molecule mediating the risk of type 2 diabetes. BCAAs may induce insulin resistance via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β 1 (S6k1)-associated pathways. The increased risk associated with processed meat compared with red meat suggests that there are interactions between the saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat and iron, AGEs and TMAO. Intervention studies are required to clarify potential mechanisms and explore interactions among components, in order to make firm recommendations on red and processed meat consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.03.008 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary consumption has recently been identified as a major environmental source of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in humans. It is disputed whether dietary AGEs represent a risk to human health. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a representative AGE compound found in food, has been suggested to make a significant contribution to circulating CML levels. However, recent studies have found that the dietary intake of AGEs is not associated with plasma CML concentrations. We have shown that the serum levels of glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs), but not hemoglobin A1c, glucose-derived AGEs (Glu-AGEs), or CML, could be used as biomarkers for predicting the progression of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We also detected the production/accumulation of Glycer-AGEs in normal rats administered Glu-AGE-rich beverages. Therefore, we assessed the concentrations of various AGEs in a total of 1,650 beverages and foods that are commonly consumed in Japan. The concentrations of four kinds of AGEs (Glu-AGEs, fructose-derived AGEs (Fru-AGEs), CML, and Glycer-AGEs) were measured with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays involving immunoaffinity-purified specific antibodies. The results of the latter assays indicated that Glu-AGEs and Fru-AGEs (especially Glu-AGEs), but not CML or Glycer-AGEs, are present at appreciable levels in beverages and foods that are commonly consumed by Japanese. Glu-AGEs, Fru-AGEs, CML, and Glycer-AGEs exhibited concentrations of ≥85%, 2-12%, <3%, and trace amounts in the examined beverages and ≥82%, 5-15%, <3%, and trace amounts in the tested foods, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that some lactic acid bacteria beverages, carbonated drinks, sugar-sweetened fruit drinks, sports drinks, mixed fruit juices, confectionery (snacks), dried fruits, cakes, cereals, and prepared foods contain markedly higher Glu-AGE levels than other classes of beverages and foods. We provide useful data on the concentrations of various AGEs, especially Glu-AGEs, in commonly consumed beverages and foods.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118652. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118652 · 3.53 Impact Factor