Rapamycin-conditioned donor dendritic cells differentiate CD4CD25Foxp3 T cells in vitro with TGF-beta1 for islet transplantation.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) conditioned with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin have been previously shown to expand naturally existing regulatory T cells (nTregs). This work addresses whether rapamycin-conditioned donor DCs could effectively induce CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs (iTregs) in cell cultures with alloantigen specificities, and whether such in vitro-differentiated CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs could effectively control acute rejection in allogeneic islet transplantation. We found that donor BALB/c bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) pharmacologically modified by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin had significantly enhanced ability to induce CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs of recipient origin (C57BL/6 (B6)) in vitro under Treg driving conditions compared to unmodified BMDCs. These in vitro-induced CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs exerted donor-specific suppression in vitro, and prolonged allogeneic islet graft survival in vivo in RAG(-/-) hosts upon coadoptive transfer with T-effector cells. The CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs expanded and preferentially maintained Foxp3 expression in the graft draining lymph nodes. Finally, the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs were further able to induce endogenous naïve T cells to convert to CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. We conclude that rapamycin-conditioned donor BMDCs can be exploited for efficient in vitro differentiation of donor antigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs. Such in vitro-generated donor-specific CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) iTregs are able to effectively control allogeneic islet graft rejection.
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ABSTRACT: The outcome of renal transplantation after an episode of acute rejection is difficult to predict, even with an allograft biopsy. We studied urine specimens from 36 subjects with acute rejection, 18 subjects with chronic allograft nephropathy, and 29 subjects with normal biopsy results. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for FOXP3, a specification and functional factor for regulatory T lymphocytes, and mRNA for CD25, CD3epsilon, perforin, and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) were measured with a kinetic, quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. We examined associations of mRNA levels with acute rejection, rejection reversal, and graft failure. The log-transformed mean (+/-SE) ratio of FOXP3 mRNA copies to 18S ribosomal RNA copies was higher in urine from the group with acute rejection (3.8+/-0.5) than in the group with chronic allograft nephropathy (1.3+/-0.7) or the group with normal biopsy results (1.6+/-0.4) (P<0.001 by the Kruskal-Wallis test). FOXP3 mRNA levels were inversely correlated with serum creatinine levels measured at the time of biopsy in the acute-rejection group (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.38, P=0.02) but not in the group with chronic allograft nephropathy or the group with normal biopsy results. Analyses of receiver-operating-characteristic curves demonstrated that reversal of acute rejection can be predicted with 90 percent sensitivity and 73 percent specificity with use of the optimal identified cutoff for FOXP3 mRNA of 3.46 (P=0.001). FOXP3 mRNA levels identified subjects at risk for graft failure within six months after the incident episode of acute rejection (relative risk for the lowest third of FOXP3 mRNA levels, 6; P=0.02). None of the other mRNA levels were predictive of reversal of acute rejection or graft failure. Measurement of FOXP3 mRNA in urine may offer a noninvasive means of improving the prediction of outcome of acute rejection of renal transplants.New England Journal of Medicine 01/2006; 353(22):2342-51. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (CD4(+) Treg cells) are thought to differentiate in the thymus and immigrate from the thymus to the periphery. Treg cells can regulate both acquired and innate immunity through multiple modes of suppression. The cross-talk between Treg cells and targeted cells, such as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, is crucial for ensuring suppression by Treg cells in the appropriate microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggests that Treg compartmentalization and trafficking may be tissue or/and organ specific and that distinct chemokine receptor and integrin expression may contribute to selective retention and trafficking of Treg cells at sites where regulation is required. In this review, the cellular and molecular signals that control specialized migration and retention of Treg cells are discussed.Blood 08/2006; 108(2):426-31. · 9.06 Impact Factor
- Transplantation 01/2008; 86. · 3.78 Impact Factor