The evolving role of hysterectomy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center.
ABSTRACT To identify indications for hysterectomy in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and to evaluate outcomes of hysterectomy in those patients.
Patients who underwent hysterectomy were identified utilizing hospital medical records and the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) database from January 1, 1959-January 1, 2009. Demographic data as well as indication for hysterectomy, stage, World Health Organization score, chemotherapeutic regimens and outcomes were recorded. We further stratified our population into patients with hysterectomies before and after 1980 to assess how indications for and outcomes after hysterectomy may have changed at our institution over time.
A total of 98 patients were identified to have undergone hysterectomy for GTN. In the entire cohort 85% (n = 83) achieved remission and 48% (n = 47) required chemotherapy after hysterectomy. Among the patients in the early cohort (n = 49), indications for hysterectomy included 15 (31%) for primary definitive management, 14 (29%) for chemotherapy resistant disease, 14 (29%) for bleeding and 6 (11%) for other reasons. Of the patients with hysterectomy for chemotherapy resistance, 9 (64%) achieved remission. In the more recent cohort (n = 49) indications for hysterectomy included 24 (49%) for primary definitive management, 19 (39%) for drug-resistant disease, 4 (8%) for bleeding and 2 (4%) for other reasons. Of the patients with hysterectomy for chemotherapy resistance, 16 (84%) achieved remission. There was a statistically significant decline in the number of hysterectomies performed for bleeding. Hysterectomy was performed for bleeding in the early cohort (1959-1980) in 14 (29%) of 49 patients but in only 4 (8%) of 49 patients in the later cohort (1981-2009) (p = 0.02).
During the years 1959-2009 the number of hysterectomies performed for GTN at the NETDC has remained stable. However, at our center there has been a decline in the incidence of hysterectomy for life-threatening hemorrhage. Overall 83 (84.7%) patients with hysterectomy for GTN obtained remission. In patients who underwent hysterectomy to treat chemotherapy-resistant disease, 25 of 33 (75.8%) subsequently achieved complete remission. Hysterectomy continues to play an important role in the management of selected patients with GTN.
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ABSTRACT: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) describes a heterogeneous group of interrelated lesions that arise from abnormal proliferation of placental trophoblasts. GTN lesions are histologically distinct, malignant lesions that include invasive hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT). GTN tumors are generally highly responsive to chemotherapy. Early stage GTN disease is often cured with single-agent chemotherapy. In contrast, advanced stage disease requires multiagent combination chemotherapeutic regimens to achieve a cure. Various adjuvant surgical procedures can be helpful to treat women with GTN. Patients require careful followup after completing treatment and recurrent disease should be aggressively managed. Women with a history of GTN are at increased risk of subsequent GTN, hence future pregnancies require careful monitoring to ensure normal gestational development. This article will review the workup, management and followup of women with all stages of GTN as well as with recurrent disease.Chemotherapy research and practice. 01/2011; 2011:806256.