Differential involvement of hippocampal serotonin1A receptors and re-uptake sites in non-cognitive behaviors of Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown extensive serotonergic deficits in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. However, it is unclear whether such deficits play a role in non-cognitive, neuropsychiatric behaviors that occur frequently in AD and cause significant caregiver distress.
In this study, we aimed to correlate serotonergic markers in the AD hippocampus with neuropsychiatric behaviors.
Using postmortem hippocampal homogenates from aged controls as well as a cohort of longitudinally assessed AD patients, measurements of 5-HT(1A) receptors, 5-HT(2A) receptors, and serotonin re-uptake (5-HTT) sites were performed by binding with (3)H-labeled 8-OH-DPAT, ketanserin, and citalopram, respectively.
Alterations of 5-HT(1A) receptors and 5-HTT were found to be differentially involved in neuropsychiatric behaviors, with loss of 5-HT(1A) receptors specifically correlated with depressive symptoms, while 5-HTT sites were preserved or up-regulated in patients with aggressive behaviors.
Our data suggest that neuropsychiatric behaviors in AD share certain neurochemical features with psychiatric disorders like major depression and that serotonergic drugs used in psychiatric disorders may also be efficacious against behavioral symptoms in AD.
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ABSTRACT: Background Whether depression is a long-term risk factor for dementia or represents a dementia prodrome is unclear. Therefore, we examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and dementia during short and long follow-up in a population-based cohort. Methods In the Rotterdam Study, 4393 nondemented individuals were followed for incident dementia for 13.7 years by continuous monitoring. Cox proportional hazards models for different time intervals were used to estimate the risk of incident dementia. Results Five-hundred eighty-two participants developed dementia during 13.7 years. Persons with depressive symptoms had an 8% increased risk of dementia compared with those without depressive symptoms during the overall follow-up. The risk was highest in the short and intermediate follow-up, particularly in men. We did not find an association in the follow-up period beyond 10 years. Conclusion Our results suggest that late-life depressive symptoms are part of a dementia prodrome rather than an independent risk factor of dementia.Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Research focused on identifying compounds that restore cognition and memory in AD patients is a very active investigational pursuit. Cholinesterase inhibitors for the symptomatic treatment of cognitive decline in AD have been in use for more than a decade but provide only modest benefits in most patients. Preclinical research is constantly providing new information on AD. The involvement of the serotonergic system in higher cognitive processes such as memory and learning has been widely described and extensive serotonergic denervation has been reported in AD. This review aims to explain the rationale behind testing serotonergic therapies for AD in terms of current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the disease. Based on preclinical studies, certain serotonin (5-HT) receptor ligands have been suggested to have the ability to modify or improve memory/cognition, specifically 5-HT receptors acting at 5-HT1A, 5-HT4 and 5-HT6 receptors. This article summarizes the pharmacology, efficacy, safety and tolerability data for the various serotonergic agents currently in clinical development for AD.Drugs 05/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rivastigmine is a non-competitive inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BuChE) used to treat mild to moderate dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Although rivastigmine reportedly ameliorates cognitive dysfunction in these patients, its ability to improve Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) remains unclear. To determine whether rivastigmine treatment antagonizes depression-like behaviors, we chronically administered rivastigmine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) to olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice once a day for two weeks, starting two weeks after bulbectomy. Chronic treatment at 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg dose-dependently and significantly improved depression-like behaviors, as assessed by tail suspension (TST), forced swim (FST), locomotion and novelty-suppressed feeding (NSFT) tests. Importantly, co-administration with WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg), a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, but not ketanserin (1.0 mg/kg,), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, completely blocked rivastigmine-induced anti-depressive effects, suggesting that 5-HT1A receptor stimulation mediates this activity. Consistent with this observation, rivastigmine treatment significantly rescued impaired neurogenesis observed in OBX mice in a 5-HT1A receptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, enhanced protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation seen following rivastigmine treatment was closely associated with improved neurogenesis. These effects were blocked by WAY-100635 but not ketanserin treatment. Finally, we confirmed that 5-HT1A but not 5-HT2A receptor stimulation by specific agonists mimicked rivastigmine-induced anti-depression activity and promoted hippocampal neurogenesis. We conclude that, in addition enhancing the cholinergic system, rivastigmine treatment restores normal function of the hippocampal serotonergic system, an activity that likely ameliorates depressive behaviors in AD patients.Neuroscience 05/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor