Eye movement disorders are different in Parkin-linked and idiopathic early-onset PD.
ABSTRACT Parkin gene mutations are the most common cause of early-onset parkinsonism. Patients with Parkin mutations may be clinically indistinguishable from patients with idiopathic early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD) without Parkin mutations. Eye movement disorders have been shown to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes, but have never been systematically studied in Parkin mutation carriers.
Eye movements were recorded in symptomatic (n = 9) and asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers (n = 13), patients with idiopathic EOPD (n = 14), and age-matched control subjects (n = 27) during established oculomotor tasks.
Both patients with EOPD and symptomatic Parkin mutation carriers showed hypometric prosaccades toward visual stimuli, as well as deficits in suppressing reflexive saccades toward unintended targets (antisaccade task). When directing gaze toward memorized target positions, patients with EOPD exhibited hypometric saccades, whereas symptomatic Parkin mutation carriers showed normal saccades. In contrast to patients with EOPD, the symptomatic Parkin mutation carriers showed impaired tracking of a moving target (reduced smooth pursuit gain). The asymptomatic Parkin mutation carriers did not differ from healthy control subjects in any of the tasks.
Although clinically similarly affected, symptomatic Parkin mutation carriers and patients with idiopathic EOPD differed in several oculomotor tasks. This finding may point to distinct anatomic structures underlying either condition: dysfunctions of cortical areas involved in smooth pursuit (V5, frontal eye field) in Parkin-linked parkinsonism vs greater impairment of basal ganglia circuits in idiopathic Parkinson disease.
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ABSTRACT: We performed research work on the effects of temperature by investigating the, DC behavior, the small signal and the noise performance of HEMT and HBT at microwave frequencies by means of different experimental systems down to cryogenic levels. The measurement data were then employed to extract temperature-dependent noisy models to be implemented in commercial CAD software. Here we report the results of the modeling procedure with a special concern for the noise performance whose knowledge is of primary importance in the design of ultra high sensitivity receiversElectron Devices for Microwave and Optoelectronic Applications, 2001 International Symposium on; 02/2001
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ABSTRACT: Striatal dopaminergic denervation leads to a change in afferent activity within the basal ganglia. Coupled with the effect of local dopaminergic denervation in the subthalamic nucleus, this is likely to affect the responsiveness of subthalamic neurons to their hyperdirect inputs in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, in this report, we investigated subthalamic nucleus responses to visual stimuli relayed by one such input - the superior colliculus - in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. We used a protocol where the superior colliculus was selectively unlocked from the inhibitory effect of anesthesia with an injection of bicuculline, attenuating GABAergic inhibition in the colliculus, which arises predominantly from the substantia nigra pars reticulata. We found that visual responses in the superior colliculus were facilitated by partial or total lesions of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, once the colliculus was disinhibited by bicuculline. Responses were faster, larger in amplitude and lasted longer compared to those in control rats. In the subthalamic nucleus, visual responses were also increased in amplitude and magnitude in partial or total lesioned groups. A classic hypothesis in Parkinson's disease suggests that following dopaminergic denervation, the discharge of cells in the substantia nigra pars reticulata increases, thereby intensifying the inhibitory influence that this structure exerts on its targets in the thalamus and brainstem. Our results suggest that neuroadaptations may have taken place within the superior colliculus in order to maintain normal function in the face of increased inhibitory tone coming from the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which once reduced, gave rise to facilitated responding. This facilitated responding in the superior colliculus then appears to lead to facilitated responding in the subthalamic nucleus.Neuroscience 07/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor