High rates of durable responses with anti-CD22 fractionated radioimmunotherapy: results of a multicenter, phase I/II study in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
ABSTRACT Fractionated radioimmunotherapy targeting CD22 may substantially improve responses and outcome in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
A multicenter trial evaluated two or three weekly infusions of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) epratuzumab tetraxetan (humanized anti-CD22 antibody) in 64 patients with relapsed/refractory NHL, including 17 patients who underwent prior autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Objective (OR) and complete responses (CR/complete response unconfirmed [CRu]), as well as progression-free survival (PFS), were determined.
At the maximum total (90)Y dose of 45 mCi/m(2) (1,665 MBq/m(2)), grade 3 to 4 hematologic toxicities were reversible to grade 1 in patients with less than 25% bone marrow involvement. The overall OR rate and median PFS for all 61 evaluable patients was 62% (CR/CRu, 48%) and 9.5 months, respectively. Patients without prior ASCT obtained high OR rates of 71% (CR/CRu, 55%) across all NHL subtypes and (90)Y doses, even in poor-risk categories (refractory to last anti-CD20-containing regimen, 73% [CR/CRu, 60%]; bulky disease: 71% [CR/CRu, 43%]). Patients with prior ASCT received lower doses, but achieved an OR rate of 41% (CR/CRu, 29%). For patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), OR rates and median PFS increased with total (90)Y-dose, reaching 100% (CR/CRu, 92%) and 24.6 months, respectively, at the highest dose levels (> 30 mCi/m(2) total (90)Y-dose [1,110 MBq/m(2)]). Further, patients with FL refractory to prior anti-CD20-containing regimens achieved 90% (nine of 10 patients) OR and CR/CRu rates and a median PFS of 21.5 months.
Fractionated anti-CD22 radioimmunotherapy provides high total doses of (90)Y, yielding high rates of durable CR/CRus in relapsed/refractory NHL, resulting in 20 mCi/m(2) x 2 weeks as the recommended dose for future studies.
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ABSTRACT: Although targeted therapies are used increasingly in hematologic malignancies, we are unaware of any prior studies of radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), even though this radiosensitive tumor expresses CD22, potentially a good target for this approach. Here we report a patient with Philadephia chromosome-positive B-ALL in third relapse who received RAIT with (90) yttrium ((90) Y)-labeled anti-CD22 epratuzumab tetraxetan. Seven weeks after initiating therapy, the patient achieved a BCR-ABL1 molecular remission documented by RT-qPCR, which is now continuing at five months while awaiting an allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant. (90) Y-epratuzumab tetraxetan may be a promising therapeutic option for CD22(+) B-ALL patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.European Journal Of Haematology 08/2013; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD22 is a B-cell-specific transmembrane glycoprotein found on the surface of most B cells; it modulates B-cell function, survival and apoptosis. CD22 has emerged as an ideal target for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapy of B-cell malignancies including most lymphomas and many leukemias. Epratuzumab, an anti-CD22 mAb, has been developed in various forms, including as an unlabeled (naked) mAb, as a radioimmunotherapeutic, as an antibody drug conjugate (ADC), and as a vehicle for CD22-targeted nanoparticles. While clinical trials with unlabeled epratuzumab have demonstrated modest results, its combination with rituximab in phase II studies has been more encouraging. Based on the potential for CD22 to become internalized, CD22-targeted constructs carrying radioisotopes or toxins have generated promising results. Radioimmunotherapy, utilizing (90)Y-labeled epratuzumab, was shown to be highly effective in patients with follicular lymphoma, generating a complete response (CR) rate of 92 % and progression-free survival of more than 2 years. ADC therapy is a promising therapeutic approach to B-cell malignancies which includes the direct conjugation of mAbs with cytotoxic agents. Phase II studies of inotuzumab ozogamicin, an ADC which combines anti-CD22 mAb with calicheamicin, an enediyne antibiotic which mediates apoptosis, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have produced an overall response rate (ORR) of greater than 50 % in treatment-refractory patients. Phase I trials of moxetumomab pasudotox, an ADC which combines anti-CD22 with PE38, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, have been completed in hairy cell leukemia with a ORR of 86 %. Finally, a review of CD22-targeted nanoparticles, that include a doxorubicin-containing lipid complex that uses synthetic high-affinity CD22 ligand mimetics as well as anti-CD22 mAb-coated pegylated liposomas doxorubin (PLD), has demonstrated promising results in pre-clinical models of human lymphoma. Moreover, novel anti-CD22 mAb that block CD22 ligand binding as well as second generation ADC that utilize biodegradable linkers and more potent toxins hold great hope for the future of CD22-targeted therapeutics that may translate into better outcomes for patients with CD22-positive malignancies.BioDrugs 05/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD22 is a cell surface glycoprotein restricted to normal and malignant B-cells and is the target of several anti-CD22 antibody-based cancer therapies. For therapeutic antibody-payload conjugates, it is important to understand the subcellular trafficking of anti-CD22 antibodies to optimize antibody and/or linker-drug properties to maximize anti-tumor efficacy. It is agreed that anti-CD22 antibodies rapidly internalize, but controversial whether they recycle or are degraded in lysosomes, and it is unclear if trafficking is antibody or cell-type dependent. No studies examined anti-CD22 trafficking to either pathway in B-cells over time by dual immunofluorescence microscopy, likely partly because multiple samples of suspension cells are tedious to stain. We overcame this by using DropArray(TM) , a novel wall-less 96-well plate technology allowing rapid simultaneous staining of suspension or adherent cells in small (10-20μl) volumes. We examined the time-course of trafficking of five different anti-CD22 antibodies in eight B-cell lines representing four B-cell cancer types and show that in all cases antibodies internalize within 5 minutes and recycle, with only small amounts eventually trafficking to lysosomes. CD22 also localizes to recycling endosomes at steady state in the absence of antibody. Our data may help explain the differential efficacies of anti-CD22 antibodies conjugated to different therapeutic payloads.Traffic 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor