Immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in the Arctic scallop Chlamys islandica: Effects of acute oil exposure

Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (Impact Factor: 2.48). 09/2010; 73(6):1440-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.06.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With increasing oil exploration in Arctic regions, the risk of an accidental oil spill into the environment is inevitably elevated. As a result, concerns have been raised over the potential impact of oil exposure on Arctic organisms. This study assessed the effects of an acute oil exposure (mimicking an accidental spill) on the immune function and oxidative stress status of the Arctic scallop Chlamys islandica. Scallops were exposed to the water accommodated fraction of crude oil over 21 d (maximum SigmaPAH 163 microg l(-1)) and immune endpoints and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Mortalities were recorded during the exposure and reductions in immunocompetence were observed, with significant impairment of phagocytosis and cell membrane stability. Scallops were also subjected to oxidative stress, with a significant reduction in glutathione levels and induction of lipid peroxidation. After the acute oil exposure had subsided, no recovery of immune function was observed indicating potential for prolonged sublethal effects.

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