Diagnostic accuracy of a questionnaire and simple home monitoring device in detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in a Chinese population at high cardiovascular risk.
ABSTRACT OSA is a common condition associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity. It remains underdiagnosed globally in part due to the limited availability and technical requirements of polysomnography (PSG). The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of two simple methods for diagnosing OSA.
Consecutive subjects identified from a community register with high CV risk were invited to complete the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire and undergo simultaneous, home, overnight PSG and ApneaLink device oximetry and nasal pressure recordings. The relative accuracies of the Berlin Questionnaire, oximetry and nasal pressure results in diagnosing PSG-defined moderate-severe OSA were assessed.
Of 257 eligible high CV risk subjects enrolled, 190 completed sleep studies and 143 subjects' studies were of sufficient quality to include in final analyses. Moderate-severe OSA was confirmed in 43% of subjects. The Berlin Questionnaire had low overall diagnostic accuracy in this population. However, ApneaLink recordings of oximetry and nasal pressure areas had high diagnostic utility with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.933 and 0.933, respectively. At optimal diagnostic thresholds, oximetry and nasal pressure measurements had similar sensitivity (84% vs 86%) and specificity (84% vs 85%). Technical failure was lower for oximetry than nasal pressure (5.8% vs 18.9% of tests).
In patients with high CV risk overnight single-channel oximetry and nasal pressure measurements may provide high diagnostic accuracy and offer an accessible alternative to full PSG.
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ABSTRACT: Study Objectives: We aimed to validate the diagnostic accuracy and night-to-night variability of a simple 3-channel (type IV monitor) portable sleep monitor, ApneaLink (AL), in a population of morbidly obese subjects. Design: Cross-sectional validation and diagnostic accuracy study. Setting: Public tertiary care obesity center in Norway. Participants: A total of 105 (67 females) treatment seeking morbidly obese subjects were included, mean (SD) age 44.3 (11.4) years and BMI 43.6 (5.6) kg/m(2). Interventions: The patients underwent two successive nights of recordings; the first night with the AL only, and the following night with both the reference instrument Embletta (E), a type III portable somnograph, and the AL. Measurements and Results: Main outcomes were diagnostic accuracy of AL as assessed by sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curves, and level of agreement between AL and E. AL had high diagnostic accuracy at all levels of OSA, and the Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between AL and E. The sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were 93% and 71% at the AHI cutoff 5 events/h, and 94% and 94% at the AHI cutoff 15, respectively. The night-to-night variability was low. Conclusion: Our results indicate that a simple 3-channel portable sleep monitor (ApneaLink) has a high diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing OSA in morbidly obese treatment seeking patients. Accordingly, this and similar instruments might help non-specialists to diagnose OSA in morbidly obese patients, and, importantly, help non-specialists to refer patients who need specific treatment to specialist without unnecessary delay.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(7):751-7. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3864 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a relatively common disease in the general population. Patients with OSA have a high risk of various comorbid medical diseases. Polysomnography (PSG) is the current gold standard for diagnosing OSA but is time consuming and expensive. This study aims to identify a sensitive screening parameter that can be used by clinicians to determine the time of referral for PSG examination in Taiwan. Eighty-seven patients, including 67 males and 20 females, were included in this study. We divided the patients into two groups: training data (n = 58) and testing group (n = 29). Pearson χ (2) test was used to perform bivariate analysis, and a decision tree was used to build a model. The decision model selected the frequency of desaturation > 4% per hour (DI4) as the indicator of OSA influence. The testing data accuracy of the C4.5 decision tree was 82.80%. External data were also used to validate the model reliability. The accuracy of the external data was 95.96%. Approximately one-third of patients with DI4 between 11 and 33 suffered from OSA. This population requires further diagnosis. Oximetry is an important and widely available screening method in Taiwan. This study proposes the need for PSG referral if DI4 is between 11 and 33.Journal of Medical Systems 03/2015; 39(3):195. DOI:10.1007/s10916-015-0195-5 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionDelirium is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery. Although various risk factors for postoperative delirium have been identified, the relationship between nocturnal breathing disorders and delirium has not yet been elucidated. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and postoperative delirium in cardiac surgery patients without a previous diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea.Methods In this prospective cohort study, 92 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation were evaluated for both SDB and postoperative delirium. Polygraphic recordings were used to calculate the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; mean number of apneas and hypopneas per hour recorded) of all patients preoperatively. Delirium was assessed during the first four postoperative days using the Confusion Assessment Method. Clinical differences between individuals with and without postoperative delirium were determined with univariate analysis. The relationship between postoperative delirium and those covariates that were associated with delirium in univiariate analysis was determined by multivariate logistic regression model.ResultsThe median overall preoperative AHI was 18.3 (interquartile range, 8.7 to 32.8). Delirium was diagnosed in 44 patients. The median AHI differed significantly between patients with and without postoperative delirium (28 versus 13; P¿=¿0.001). A preoperative AHI of 19 or higher was associated with an almost six-fold increased risk of postoperative delirium (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.6 to 15.4; P <0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative AHI, age, smoking, and blood transfusion were independently associated with postoperative delirium.Conclusion Preoperative SDB (for example, undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea) were strongly associated with postoperative delirium, and may be a risk factor for postoperative delirium.Critical care (London, England) 09/2014; 18(5):477. DOI:10.1186/s13054-014-0477-1