Diagnostic accuracy of a questionnaire and simple home monitoring device in detecting obstructive sleep apnoea in a Chinese population at high cardiovascular risk
ABSTRACT OSA is a common condition associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity. It remains underdiagnosed globally in part due to the limited availability and technical requirements of polysomnography (PSG). The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of two simple methods for diagnosing OSA.
Consecutive subjects identified from a community register with high CV risk were invited to complete the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire and undergo simultaneous, home, overnight PSG and ApneaLink device oximetry and nasal pressure recordings. The relative accuracies of the Berlin Questionnaire, oximetry and nasal pressure results in diagnosing PSG-defined moderate-severe OSA were assessed.
Of 257 eligible high CV risk subjects enrolled, 190 completed sleep studies and 143 subjects' studies were of sufficient quality to include in final analyses. Moderate-severe OSA was confirmed in 43% of subjects. The Berlin Questionnaire had low overall diagnostic accuracy in this population. However, ApneaLink recordings of oximetry and nasal pressure areas had high diagnostic utility with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.933 and 0.933, respectively. At optimal diagnostic thresholds, oximetry and nasal pressure measurements had similar sensitivity (84% vs 86%) and specificity (84% vs 85%). Technical failure was lower for oximetry than nasal pressure (5.8% vs 18.9% of tests).
In patients with high CV risk overnight single-channel oximetry and nasal pressure measurements may provide high diagnostic accuracy and offer an accessible alternative to full PSG.
- SourceAvailable from: Toby M MaherRespirology 04/2011; 16(3):553-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.01927.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Guidance is needed to help clinicians decide which out-of-center (OOC) testing devices are appropriate for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A new classification system that details the type of signals measured by these devices is presented. This proposed system categorizes OOC devices based on measurements of Sleep, Cardiovascular, Oximetry, Position, Effort, and Respiratory (SCOPER) parameters.Criteria for evaluating the devices are also presented, which were generated from chosen pre-test and post-test probabilities. These criteria state that in patients with a high pretest probability of having OSA, the OOC testing device has a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 5 or greater coinciding with an in-lab-polysomnography (PSG)-generated apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5, and an adequate sensitivity (at least 0.825).Since oximetry is a mandatory signal for scoring AHI using PSG, devices that do not incorporate oximetry were excluded. English peer-reviewed literature on FDA-approved devices utilizing more than 1 signal was reviewed according to the above criteria for 6 questions. These questions specifically addressed the adequacy of different respiratory and effort sensors and combinations thereof to diagnose OSA. In summary, the literature is currently inadequate to state with confidence that a thermistor alone without any effort sensor is adequate to diagnose OSA; if a thermal sensing device is used as the only measure of respiration, 2 effort belts are required as part of the montage and piezoelectric belts are acceptable in this context; nasal pressure can be an adequate measurement of respiration with no effort measure with the caveat that this may be device specific; nasal pressure may be used in combination with either 2 piezoelectric or respiratory inductance plethysmographic (RIP) belts (but not 1 piezoelectric belt); and there is insufficient evidence to state that both nasal pressure and thermistor are required to adequately diagnose OSA. With respect to alternative devices for diagnosing OSA, the data indicate that peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) devices are adequate for the proposed use; the device based on cardiac signals shows promise, but more study is required as it has not been tested in the home setting; for the device based on end-tidal CO(2) (ETCO(2)), it appears to be adequate for a hospital population; and for devices utilizing acoustic signals, the data are insufficient to determine whether the use of acoustic signals with other signals as a substitute for airflow is adequate to diagnose OSA.Standardized research is needed on OOC devices that report LR+ at the appropriate AHI (≥ 5) and scored according to the recommended definitions, while using appropriate research reporting and methodology to minimize bias.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 10/2011; 7(5):531-48. DOI:10.5664/JCSM.1328 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to validate the automatic and manual analysis of ApneaLink Ox™ (ALOX) in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: All patients with suspected OSA had a polysomnography (PSG) and an ALOX performed in the sleep laboratory. For automatic analysis, hypopnea was defined as a decrease in airflow ≥30 % of baseline for at least 10 s plus oxygen desaturation ≥3 or 4 %. While for the manual analysis, hypopnoea was considered when a reduction of airflow ≥30 % of ≥10 s plus oxygen desaturation ≥3 % or increase in cardiac rate ≥5 beats/min were identified or, when only a reduction of airflow ≥50 % was observed. OSA was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥5. The apnea/hypopnea automatic index (AHI3-a, AHI4-a) and manual index were estimated. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and the agreement between ALOX and PSG were performed. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were included (38 men; mean age, 48.2; median, RDI 15.1; median BMI, 30 Kg/m(2)). The automatic analysis of ALOX under-estimated the RDI from PSG, mainly for the criterion of oxygen desaturation ≥4 % (AHI3-a-RDI, -3.6 ± 10.1; AHI4-a-RDI, -6.5 ± 10.9, p < 0.05). The autoscoring from ALOX device showed a better performance when it was set up to identify hypopneas with an oxygen desaturation criterion of ≥3 % than when it was configured with an oxygen desaturation criterion of ≥4 % (area under the receiver operator curves, 0.87 vs. 0.84). Also, the manual analysis was found to be better than the autoscoring set up with an oxygen desaturation of ≥3 % (0.923 vs. 0.87). The manual analysis showed a good interobserver agreement for the classification of patients with or without OSA (k = 0.81). CONCLUSION: The AHI obtained automatically from the ApneaLink Ox™ using oxygen desaturation ≥3 % as a criterion of hypopnea had a good performance to diagnose OSA. The manual scoring from ApneaLink Ox™ was better than the automatic scoring to discriminate patients with OSA.Sleep And Breathing 03/2012; 17(1). DOI:10.1007/s11325-012-0684-4 · 2.48 Impact Factor