Goal setting in neurological rehabilitation: staff perspectives.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' perspectives about goal setting, and more particularly, the use of two specific forms of goal setting used within the same setting; 'usual participation' and 'increased participation'.
A qualitative research approach was identified as being particularly pertinent for the aims of this study. Fifteen rehabilitation professionals representing five different professions and having experience of usual and increased participation goal setting approaches used in one Neurological Rehabilitation Unit participated in two focus groups. The focus group questions were designed to elicit staff views about goal setting generally, and to invite comparison regarding their experiences of using two goal setting approaches. The focus group transcripts were analysed according to thematic analysis principles.
Five themes were identified: the goal setting tools (including views about the folder developed for one form of goal setting); barriers to goal setting (including lack of time, professional group work patterns and lack of experience), the keyworker role (including prerequisites for effective keyworking); patient characteristics (disease, personality and expectations); and the nature of goals.
Whilst the 'increased participation' mode of goal setting was seen as having the potential to allow patients a stronger voice within the goal setting process, both time and resources are required to ensure that this potential is fully realised.
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ABSTRACT: Background: There have been numerous calls for rehabilitation professionals to involve patients or clients in decisions about the goals of therapy. And yet collaborative goal setting in rehabilitation remains uncommon and is particularly difficult to achieve for people with aphasia.Aims: This discussion paper describes a new framework for conceptualising and structuring collaborative goal setting in aphasia rehabilitation. The framework has been developed based on the results of a large, multi-centred Australian study, the Goals in Aphasia Project, which explored client, family, and speech pathology experiences of rehabilitation goal setting. This framework, called SMARTER Goal Setting, describes a process of goal setting that is Shared, Monitored, Accessible, Relevant, Transparent, Evolving and Relationship-centred.Methods & Procedures: The methods and results from the Goals in Aphasia Project have already been published elsewhere but involved in-depth interviews with 50 people with aphasia, 48 family members, and 34 treating speech pathologists. This paper reviews the broader literature and summarises relevant findings from the Goals in Aphasia Project as a basis for discussion of each category of SMARTER.Outcomes & Results: Our new SMARTER framework both challenges and complements elements of the pervasive SMART goal paradigm (that goals should be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-bound), which currently dominates rehabilitation goal setting. SMARTER offers an easy way to summarise much of the collaborative work that already takes place in clinical practice but also emphasises aspects that could be improved. SMARTER does not replace SMART, but we suggest that SMART goals can be negotiated in a SMARTER way.Conclusions: While this paper discusses SMARTER goal setting within aphasia rehabilitation, a particularly challenging context for the implementation of collaborative practice, it may be applicable to rehabilitation more broadly. Given that person-centred goal setting within stroke rehabilitation remains infrequent, we suggest that there is an urgent need to raise awareness of its importance and challenge current practice. The SMARTER framework provides a useful structure to support collaborative goal setting.Aphasiology 02/2012; 26(2):220-233. DOI:10.1080/02687038.2011.640392 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research suggests that rehabilitation is beneficial for persons with Huntington's disease (HD), but there is limited knowledge about participants' experiences with residential rehabilitation programs. We therefore did a study to explore patients', family caregivers', and health professionals' experiences with a group-based, residential rehabilitation program for individuals with early to mid-stage HD, focusing on three research questions: How did participants experience the structure and content of the program? What outcomes did patients experience? What challenges and success factors did health professionals report?BMC Health Services Research 09/2014; 14(1):395. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-395 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the central importance of goal setting in aphasia rehabilitation, the notion of the goal itself has not been fully explored.Aims: This paper considers how speech pathologists conceptualise the nature of the “goal” in aphasia rehabilitation.Methods & Procedures: The researchers conducted a qualitative study involving 34 speech pathologists (32 female and 2 male; mean age 41 years, range 24–60 years) from Adelaide, Brisbane and Newcastle, Australia, who worked across acute and rehabilitation inpatient, outpatient, community, and domiciliary services. The speech pathologists participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews about their experiences of providing therapy to people with aphasia post stroke and their family members. Transcriptions of the recorded interviews were subjected to an interpretive thematic analysis involving careful reading and re-reading for recurring themes around notions of goals.Outcomes & Results: The analysis of the transcripts revealed six main categories of goal concepts: goals as desires; SMART goals; impairment and functional goals; goals as steps; goals as contracts; and implicit goals. The first two of these conceptual categories competed with each other reflecting broader tensions within speech pathology practice, and the relative prominence of these goal categories differed according to the rehabilitation context.Conclusions: The findings suggest that the notion of the goal is multifaceted, dynamic, context dependent, and involves inherent tension. A more detailed understanding of the different facets of a goal might assist speech pathologists in their efforts towards collaborative goal setting. A conceptual shift to include the goal as a vehicle of empowerment may be helpful as a precursor to effective, collaborative, and person-centred goal setting with people with aphasia.Aphasiology 08/2012; DOI:10.1080/02687038.2012.684339 · 1.73 Impact Factor