Prospective neuraxis MRI surveillance reveals a high risk of leptomeningeal dissemination in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
ABSTRACT Prognosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) remains poor. Failure has been predominantly local, with leptomeningeal dissemination (LD) occurring in 4-33% of patients in pre-MRI era series. Routine craniospinal imaging after initial treatment may reveal other relapse patterns relapse. Sixteen consecutive pediatric patients with DIPG treated between 2006 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment regimens, recurrence patterns, survival, and pathologic diagnosis were recorded. Fourteen patients received involved-field radiotherapy to 54 Gy, and two patients received craniospinal irradiation for LD at presentation. Neuraxis MRI was performed at diagnosis and at 4 month intervals following radiotherapy. Fifteen patients have had progression of disease (median progression-free survival 5.0 ± 1.2 months), and 13 patients have died (median survival 9.0 ± 1.4 months). Local failure occurred in 12 patients (75%). LD occurred in nine patients (56%). LD was present at diagnosis in three patients, after initial staging and treatment in six patients, and during autopsy in two patients. Median overall survival was 12.0 ± 3.3 months without LD and 8.0 ± 2.1 months with LD (P = 0.059, log rank test). Median progression-free survival was 9.5 ± 3.9 months without LD and 3.0 ± 2.1 months with LD (P = 0.012, log rank test). The high incidence of LD probably reflects liberal use of spine MRI surveillance. All patients should undergo routine craniospinal imaging at diagnosis and follow-up. Central nervous system prophylaxis should be considered in future clinical trials.
SourceAvailable from: Amy Lee Bredlau[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are a fairly common pediatric brain tumor, and children with these tumors have a dismal prognosis. They generally are diagnosed within the first decade of life, and due to their location within the pons, these tumors are not surgically resectable. The median survival for children with DIPGs is less than 1 year, in spite of decades of clinical trial development of unique approaches to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Novel therapies are under investigation for these deadly tumors. As clinicians and researchers make a concerted effort to obtain tumor tissue, the molecular signals of these tumors are being investigated in an attempt to uncover targetable therapies for DIPGs. In addition, direct application of chemotherapies into the tumor (convection-enhanced delivery) is being investigated as a novel delivery system for treatment of DIPGs. Overall, DIPGs require creative thinking and a disciplined approach for development of a therapy that can improve the prognosis for these unfortunate children.Advances in Cancer Research 01/2014; 121:235-59. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-800249-0.00006-8 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), with a median survival of only 9 months, is the leading cause of pediatric brain cancer mortality. Dearth of tumor tissue for research has limited progress in this disease until recently. New experimental models for DIPG research are now emerging. To develop preclinical models of DIPG, two different methods were adopted: cells obtained at autopsy (1) were directly xenografted orthotopically into the pons of immunodeficient mice without an intervening cell culture step or (2) were first cultured in vitro and, upon successful expansion, injected in vivo. Both strategies resulted in pontine tumors histopathologically similar to the original human DIPG tumors. However, following the direct transplantation method all tumors proved to be composed of murine and not of human cells. This is in contrast to the indirect method that included initial in vitro culture and resulted in xenografts comprising human cells. Of note, direct injection of cells obtained postmortem from the pons and frontal lobe of human brains not affected by cancer did not give rise to neoplasms. The murine pontine tumors exhibited an immunophenotype similar to human DIPG, but were also positive for microglia/macrophage markers, such as CD45, CD68 and CD11b. Serial orthotopic injection of these murine cells results in lethal tumors in recipient mice. Direct injection of human DIPG cells in vivo can give rise to malignant murine tumors. This represents an important caveat for xenotransplantation models of DIPG. In contrast, an initial in vitro culture step can allow establishment of human orthotopic xenografts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon observed with direct xenotransplantation remains an open question.Acta Neuropathologica 04/2014; 127(6). DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1272-4 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over 70% of diffuse intrinsic pediatric gliomas, an aggressive brainstem tumor, harbor heterozygous mutations that create a K27M amino acid substitution (methionine replaces lysine 27) in the tail of histone H3.3. The role of the H3.3K27M mutation in tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we use a human embryonic stem cell system to model this tumor. We show that H3.3K27M expression synergizes with p53 loss and PDGFRA activation in neural progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, resulting in neoplastic transformation. Genome-wide analyses indicate a resetting of the transformed precursors to a developmentally more primitive stem cell state, with evidence of major modifications of histone marks at several master regulator genes. Drug screening assays identified a compound targeting the protein menin as an inhibitor of tumor cell growth in vitro and in mice. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.Science 12/2014; 346(6216):1529-33. DOI:10.1126/science.1253799 · 31.48 Impact Factor