The effects of clozapine on quinpirole-induced non-regulatory drinking and prepulse inhibition disruption in rats.
ABSTRACT The biological underpinnings of schizophrenic polydipsia are poorly understood.
This study is aimed at fulfilling the requisites of an experimental model of this syndrome through the quinpirole (QNP) induction of non-regulatory drinking in rats.
In a first experiment, clozapine (10 and 40 mg/kg p.o.) was substituted for haloperidol during the last 5 days of 10 days QNP (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) administration and water intake measured at 5 h. In a second experiment, animals treated with QNP alone or in combination with clozapine were assessed for water intake and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Expression of genes coding for the dopaminergic D2 receptor, as well as for the early genes BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and c-Fos in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum was also evaluated.
Clozapine prevented QNP-induced drinking at 10 and 40 mg/kg, but only at 40 mg/kg when it was substituted for haloperidol. In the second experiment, QNP-treated rats showed both non-regulatory drinking and PPI disruption. Both these effects were prevented by clozapine 40 mg/kg. QNP-reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampus and increased c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex. This effect was prevented by clozapine. Given by itself, clozapine reduced the expression of both D2 receptors and BDNF in the prefrontal cortex and striatum.
The present study lends further support to the hypothesis that non-regulatory drinking induced by QNP in rats is a robust and reliable pharmacological effect that might model psychotic polydipsia also in its sensitivity to clozapine.
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine plays a role in generating flexible adaptive responses in changing environments. Chronic administration of D2-like agonist quinpirole (QNP) induces behavioral sensitization and stereotypical behaviors reminiscent of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some of these symptoms persist even after QNP discontinuation. In QNP-sensitization, perseverative behavior has often been implicated. To test the effect of QNP-sensitization on reversal learning and its association with perseveration we selected an aversively motivated hippocampus-dependent task, active place avoidance on a Carousel. Performance was measured as the number of entrances into a to-be-avoided sector (errors). We tested separately QNP-sensitized rats in QNP-drugged and QNP-undrugged state in acquisition and reversal tasks on the Carousel. In acquisition learning there were no significant differences between groups and their respective controls. In reversal, QNP-sensitized drugged rats showed a robust but transient increase in number of errors compared to controls. QNP-sensitized rats in an undrugged state were not overtly different from the control animals but displayed an altered learning manifested by more errors at the beginning compensated by quicker learning in the second session compared to control animals. Importantly, performance was not associated with perseveration in neither QNP-sensitized drugged nor QNP-sensitized undrugged animals. The present results show that chronic QNP treatment induces robust reversal learning deficit only when the substance is continuously administered, and suggest that QNP animal model of OCD is also feasible model of cognitive alterations in this disorder.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:122. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prepulse inhibition (PPI), the reduction in acoustic startle reflex when it is preceded by a weak prepulse stimuli, is a measure of critical to normal brain functioning sensorimotor gating. PPI deficit was shown in a variety of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and in DBA/2J mouse strain. In the current study, we examined the effects of brain-derived (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived (GDNF) neurotrophic factors on acoustic startle response and PPI in DBA/2J mice. It was found that BDNF (300ng, i.c.v.) significantly increased amplitude of startle response and restored disrupted PPI in 7 days after acute administration. GDNF (800ng, i.c.v.) did not produce significant alteration neither in amplitude of startle response nor in PPI in DBA/2J mice. The reversal effect of BDNF on PPI deficit was unusually long-lasting: significant increase in PPI was found 1.5 month after single acute BDNF administration. Long-term ameliorative effect BDNF on disrupted PPI suggested the implication of epigenetic mechanism in BDNF action on neurogenesis. BDNF rather than GDNF could be a perspective drug for the treatment of sensorimotor gating impairments.Neuroscience Letters 07/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: In rats, quinpirole, a dopaminergic D2/D3 receptor agonist, elicits both hyperdipsia and water "contrafreeloading" (CFL), a putative model of compulsivity. The role of D3 receptors in this effect remains unclear. Clomipramine (CIM) was found to contrast both hyperdipsia and CFL, but the role of serotonin in this effect requires further investigation. OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of the preferential D3 agonist pramipexole (PPX) in both models. Furthermore, we tested the sensitivity of PPX-induced CFL to CIM and to the 5HT2c antagonist SB242084. METHODS: In experiment 1, drinking was measured at 2 and 5 h after eight daily injections of PPX (0 to 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally). In the CFL study, every other third lever press, the rat was reinforced by the delivery of water. On days 1-6, water was only available upon lever pressing. On days 7-15, choice between response-contingent and free access was provided. PPX doses as in the experiment 1 were given. In two further experiments, PPX (0.5 mg/kg) was administered alone or in combination with CIM (5 or 10 mg/kg) or SB242084 (0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg). RESULTS: PPX did not produce hyperdipsia but enhanced spontaneous CFL. SB242084 attenuated PPX-induced CFL more effectively than CIM, restoring the preference for free access to water. CONCLUSIONS: CFL, but not polydipsia, was induced by preferential D3 activation, an effect prevented by 5HT2c receptor blockade. Since PPX interferes with decision making and 5HT2c receptor supersensitivity is involved in the expression of compulsive behaviors, this study supports the compulsive nature of dopaminergic-induced CFL.Psychopharmacology 12/2012; · 4.06 Impact Factor