The effects of clozapine on quinpirole-induced non-regulatory drinking and prepulse inhibition disruption in rats.
ABSTRACT The biological underpinnings of schizophrenic polydipsia are poorly understood.
This study is aimed at fulfilling the requisites of an experimental model of this syndrome through the quinpirole (QNP) induction of non-regulatory drinking in rats.
In a first experiment, clozapine (10 and 40 mg/kg p.o.) was substituted for haloperidol during the last 5 days of 10 days QNP (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) administration and water intake measured at 5 h. In a second experiment, animals treated with QNP alone or in combination with clozapine were assessed for water intake and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Expression of genes coding for the dopaminergic D2 receptor, as well as for the early genes BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and c-Fos in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum was also evaluated.
Clozapine prevented QNP-induced drinking at 10 and 40 mg/kg, but only at 40 mg/kg when it was substituted for haloperidol. In the second experiment, QNP-treated rats showed both non-regulatory drinking and PPI disruption. Both these effects were prevented by clozapine 40 mg/kg. QNP-reduced BDNF expression in the hippocampus and increased c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex. This effect was prevented by clozapine. Given by itself, clozapine reduced the expression of both D2 receptors and BDNF in the prefrontal cortex and striatum.
The present study lends further support to the hypothesis that non-regulatory drinking induced by QNP in rats is a robust and reliable pharmacological effect that might model psychotic polydipsia also in its sensitivity to clozapine.
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ABSTRACT: Polydipsia among chronic psychiatric patients is poorly understood and underdiagnosed. It may have three stages: simple polydipsia, polydipsia with water intoxication, and physical complications. Epidemiological surveys have used staff reports and polyuria measures to identify polydipsic patients. Water intoxication has been screened by chart review, weight, or serum sodium data. According to these surveys, polydipsia, not explained by medically induced polyuria, may be present in more than 20% of chronic inpatients. Up to 5% of chronic inpatients had episodes of water intoxication although mild cases may have been missed. Single time point surveys show that 29% of polydipsic patients had presented water intoxication. Methodologically limited clinical studies suggest that polydipsia with water intoxication rather than simple polydipsia may be associated with poor prognosis in schizophrenia. Epidemiological surveys found polydipsia with water intoxication to be associated with chronicity, schizophrenia, smoking, some medications, male gender, and white race. New pathophysiological models need to elucidate these findings.Biological Psychiatry 04/1994; 35(6):408-19. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of schizophrenia has evolved over the past half century primarily in the context of antipsychotic drug development. Although there has been significant progress resulting in the availability and use of numerous medications, these reflect three basic classes of medications (conventional (typical), atypical and dopamine partial agonist antipsychotics) all of which, despite working by varying mechanisms of actions, act principally on dopamine systems. Many of the second-generation (atypical and dopamine partial agonist) antipsychotics are believed to offer advantages over first-generation agents in the treatment for schizophrenia. However, the pharmacological properties that confer the different therapeutic effects of the new generation of antipsychotic drugs have remained elusive, and certain side effects can still impact patient health and quality of life. Moreover, the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs is limited prompting the clinical use of adjunctive pharmacy to augment the effects of treatment. In addition, the search for novel and nondopaminergic antipsychotic drugs has not been successful to date, though numerous development strategies continue to be pursued, guided by various pathophysiologic hypotheses. This article provides a brief review and critique of the current therapeutic armamentarium for treating schizophrenia and drug development strategies and theories of mechanisms of action of antipsychotics, and focuses on novel targets for therapeutic agents for future drug development.Molecular Psychiatry 02/2005; 10(1):79-104. · 14.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor gating, a neural process severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia, can be measured by assessing prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle responses. PPI is disrupted in experimental animals by stimulation of D(2)-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We examined the effect of repeated treatment with a selective dopamine D(2)-like receptor agonist, quinpirole, and characterized the molecular substrates of the resulting PPI adaptation. Animals were treated once daily for 10 or 28 consecutive days with quinpirole (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg, s.c.), and the effect on PPI was assessed throughout the treatment period. PPI was reduced after acute quinpirole administration, but gradually increased with repeated treatment. Quinpirole-induced PPI disruption was attenuated after 10 days of treatment at lower doses, but complete recovery was not apparent until the treatment period was extended to 28 days. Since chronic drug exposure can alter the dopamine system, we sought to characterize the effects of repeated quinpirole treatment on G proteins coupled to D(2)-like receptors in the NAc. Guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding and Western blot analysis revealed that repeated quinpirole treatment had no effect on NAc D(2)-like receptor G protein function or G protein levels. These data indicate that repeated activation of D(2)-like receptors by quinpirole produces tolerance in the absence of receptor or G protein changes, suggesting that the locus of dopaminergic adaptation might be at the intracellular level.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2004; 308(2):487-94. · 3.89 Impact Factor