Article

A case of pure red cell aplasia associated with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 2.98). 06/2010; 42(2):115-7. DOI: 10.4143/crt.2010.42.2.115
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pure red cell aplasia is a bone marrow failure characterized by a progressive normocytic anemia and reticulocytopenia without leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. It is associated with various hematologic diseases. However, pure red cell aplasia with angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma has rarely been reported. Here we describe a 43-year-old woman with pure red cell aplasia associated with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. She had severe anemia (hemoglobin 6.9 g/dL) and a low reticulocyte count (0.2%). Direct and indirect Coombs' tests were positive. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed marked hepatosplenomegaly and small multiple lymphadenopathies. A bone marrow biopsy revealed focal infiltration of abnormal lymphoid cells and absence of red cell precursors. Splenic biopsy was compatible with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Ultimately, diagnosis of pure red cell aplasia associated with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was made. After initiating CHOP therapy, the patient achieved complete remission, which was accompanied, shortly thereafter, by a rise in hemoglobin levels which finally returned to normal.

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    ABSTRACT: Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome defined by a progressive normocytic anaemia and reticulocyto-penia without leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Secondary PRCA can be associated with various haematological disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the present review is to investigate the infrequent association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders. PRCA might precede the appearance of lymphoma, may present simultaneously with the lymphoid neoplastic disease, or might appear following the lymphomatic disorder. Possible pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to explain the rare association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders are reported. Most cases of PRCA are presumed to be autoimmune mediated by antibodies against either erythroblasts or erythropoietin, by T-cells secreting factors selectively inhibiting erythroid colonies in the bone marrow or by NK cells directly lysing erythroblasts. Finally, focus is given to the therapeutical approach, as several treatment regimens have failed for PRCA. Immunosuppressive therapy and/or chemotherapy are effective for improving anaemia in the majority of patients with lymphoma-associated PRCA. Further investigation is required to define the pathophysiology of PRCA at a molecular level and to provide convincing evidence why it might appear as a rare complication of lymphoproliferative disorders.