Posttraumatic stress disorder: a primer for trauma surgeons.
ABSTRACT In 1980, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) officially became classified as an anxiety disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition. Since then, there has been increasing recognition that PTSD is a prevalent disorder that may have significant impact on the quality of life for survivors of traumatic events. More recently, methodologically sound research has begun to provide important insight into this disorder. The following review serves to provide the trauma surgeons information on PTSD in terms of its diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors, treatment strategies, and outcomes, with the goal of minimizing the sequelae of PTSD and maximizing postinjury quality of life.
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ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to multiple traumatic events of an interpersonal nature, particularly during development, has shown psychological consequences and symptoms not included among the current diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These negative and chronic situations during childhood and adolescence provide further evidence of the existence of a psychopathological syndrome associated with complex (dis)adaptations to a number of traumatic effects. The absence of a cohesive and reliable diagnosis for these patients negatively affects symptom identification and treatment planning. The aim of the present study was to review the definition of trauma, presenting the concept of complex trauma and investigating its clinical implications and the diagnostic categories deriving from this construct. Important questions are raised about differences between complex trauma and PTSD, followed by an investigation of PTSD symptoms and comorbid disorders, as well as the limitations of PTSD diagnosis. Taking into consideration the psychopathological impact associated with complex trauma, the article discusses the possibility of including a new diagnostic category in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is discussed, as part of the spectrum of post-traumatic psychopathologies.Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul 01/2011; 33(1):55-62.
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ABSTRACT: Trait anxiety is a relatively stable disposition reflecting an individual's tendency to experience anxious symptomatology, typically measured using questionnaires such as the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). While trait anxiety commonly is considered a unitary construct, recent questionnaire research suggests that two different dimensions of anxiety vulnerability account for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. These dimensions are anxiety reactivity (AR), reflecting the intensity of anxiety reactions to stressors, and anxiety perseveration (AP), reflecting the persistence of anxiety symptoms. This study investigated whether in vivo measures of these two facets independently contribute to anxiety vulnerability. Seventy-two participants were exposed to a novel stress task designed to yield measures of AR and AP. Regression analysis determined that these in vivo measures were unrelated to each other, and each accounted for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. The implications of these findings for the assessment and understanding of anxiety vulnerability are discussed.Anxiety, stress, and coping 11/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The significance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in trauma patients is well recognized. The impact trauma surgeons endure in managing critical trauma cases is unknown. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of PTSD among trauma surgeons and identify risk factors associated with the development of PTSD.The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 07/2014; 77(1):148-154. · 2.35 Impact Factor