Superinhibitory phospholamban mutants compete with Ca2+ for binding to SERCA2a by stabilizing a unique nucleotide-dependent conformational state
ABSTRACT Three cross-linkable phospholamban (PLB) mutants of increasing inhibitory strength (N30C-PLB < N27A,N30C,L37A-PLB (PLB3) < N27A,N30C,L37A,V49G-PLB (PLB4)) were used to determine whether PLB decreases the Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA2a by competing for Ca(2+) binding. The functional effects of N30C-PLB, PLB3, and PLB4 on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and E1 approximately P formation were correlated with their binding interactions with SERCA2a measured by chemical cross-linking. Successively higher Ca(2+) concentrations were required to both activate the enzyme co-expressed with N30C-PLB, PLB3, and PLB4 and to dissociate N30C-PLB, PLB3, and PLB4 from SERCA2a, suggesting competition between PLB and Ca(2+) for binding to SERCA2a. This was confirmed with the Ca(2+) pump mutant, D351A, which is catalytically inactive but retains strong Ca(2+) binding. Increasingly higher Ca(2+) concentrations were also required to dissociate N30C-PLB, PLB3, and PLB4 from D351A, demonstrating directly that PLB antagonizes Ca(2+) binding. Finally, the specific conformation of E2 (Ca(2+)-free state of SERCA2a) that binds PLB was investigated using the Ca(2+)-pump inhibitors thapsigargin and vanadate. Cross-linking assays conducted in the absence of Ca(2+) showed that PLB bound preferentially to E2 with bound nucleotide, forming a remarkably stable complex that is highly resistant to both thapsigargin and vanadate. In the presence of ATP, N30C-PLB had an affinity for SERCA2a approaching that of vanadate (micromolar), whereas PLB3 and PLB4 had much higher affinities, severalfold greater than even thapsigargin (nanomolar or higher). We conclude that PLB decreases Ca(2+) binding to SERCA2a by stabilizing a unique E2.ATP state that is unable to bind thapsigargin or vanadate.
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ABSTRACT: To study PLB (phospholamban) inhibition of the cardiac Ca(2+) pump [SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a)], a fusion protein (SER-20G-PLB) was engineered by tethering SERCA2a with PLB through a 20-glycine residue chain, allowing the PLB tether to either bind to or dissociate from the inhibition site on SERCA2a. When expressed in insect cells, SER-20G-PLB produced active Ca(2+) uptake, which was stimulated by the anti-PLB antibody, both similar to that which occurred with the control sample co-expressing WT (wild-type)-SERCA2a and WT-PLB. The K(Ca) values of Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase were similar for SER-20G-PLB (0.29±0.02 μM) and for the control sample (0.30±0.02 μM), both greater than 0.17±0.01 μM for WT-SERCA2a expressed alone. Thus SER-20G-PLB retains a fully active Ca(2+) pump, but its apparent Ca(2+) affinity was decreased intrinsically by tethered PLB at a 1:1 molar stoichiometry. Like WT-PLB, SER-20G-PLB ran as both monomers and homo-pentamers on SDS/PAGE. As Ca(2+) concentrations increase from 0 to the micromolar range, the proportion of non-inhibiting pentamers increased from 32% to 52%, suggesting that Ca(2+) activation of the pump completely dissociates the PLB tether from the inhibition site on SERCA2a, with concurrent association of PLB pentamers. Collectively, the regulation of SERCA2a is achieved through the Ca(2+)-dependent equilibria involving PLB association and dissociation from SERCA2a, and assembling and disassembling of SER-20G-PLB pentamers.Biochemical Journal 06/2011; 439(2):313-9. DOI:10.1042/BJ20110926 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanism of regulation of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) by phospholamban (PLB), we expressed Cerulean-SERCA and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-PLB in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes using adenovirus vectors. SERCA and PLB were localized in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and were mobile over multiple sarcomeres on a timescale of tens of seconds. We also observed robust fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Cerulean-SERCA to YFP-PLB. Electrical pacing of cardiac myocytes elicited cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevations, but these increases in Ca(2+) produced only modest changes in SERCA-PLB FRET. The data suggest that the regulatory complex is not disrupted by elevations of cytosolic calcium during cardiac contraction (systole). This conclusion was also supported by parallel experiments in heterologous cells, which showed that FRET was reduced but not abolished by calcium. Thapsigargin also elicited a small decrease in PLB-SERCA binding affinity. We propose that PLB is not displaced from SERCA by high calcium during systole, and relief of functional inhibition does not require dissociation of the regulatory complex. The observed modest reduction in the affinity of the PLB-SERCA complex with Ca(2+) or thapsigargin suggests that the binding interface is altered by SERCA conformational changes. The results are consistent with multiple modes of PLB binding or alternative binding sites.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(40):35044-50. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.266759 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemical cross-linking was used to study protein binding interactions between native phospholamban (PLB) and SERCA2a in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles prepared from normal and failed human hearts. Lys(27) of PLB was cross-linked to the Ca(2+) pump at the cytoplasmic extension of M4 (at or near Lys(328)) with the homobifunctional cross-linker, disuccinimidyl glutarate (7.7 Å). Cross-linking was augmented by ATP but abolished by Ca(2+) or thapsigargin, confirming in native SR vesicles that PLB binds preferentially to E2 (low Ca(2+) affinity conformation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase) stabilized by ATP. To assess the functional effects of PLB binding on SERCA2a activity, the anti-PLB antibody, 2D12, was used to disrupt the physical interactions between PLB and SERCA2a in SR vesicles. We observed a tight correlation between 2D12-induced inhibition of PLB cross-linking to SERCA2a and 2D12 stimulation of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Ca(2+) transport. The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of PLB on Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in SR vesicles results from mutually exclusive binding of PLB and Ca(2+) to the Ca(2+) pump, requiring PLB dissociation for catalytic activation. Importantly, the same result was obtained with SR vesicles prepared from normal and failed human hearts; therefore, we conclude that PLB binding interactions with the Ca(2+) pump are largely unchanged in failing myocardium.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(10):7582-93. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.334987 · 4.57 Impact Factor