An IL-1β-Dependent Switch in Innate Mucosal Immunity?
ABSTRACT The mechanisms that guide the development of mucosal-associated innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) producing IL-17, IL-22, and IFN-gamma are the subject of intense interest. In this issue of Immunity, Hughes et al. (2010) identify a new role for IL-1beta in regulating an IL-22-producing ILC.
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ABSTRACT: Activated uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are abundant in early human and mouse decidual basalis. In mice, distinct uNK cell subsets support early endothelial tip cell induction, the pruning of new vessels and initiation of spiral arterial modification. While genetic studies indicate that NK/uNK cell activation via receptors recognizing Class I MHC-derived peptides promotes human pregnancy, roles for other activation receptors expressed by NK cells, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) are undefined in human or mouse pregnancies. Expression of AHR and NCR1 (ortholog of human NKp46) by gestation day (gd)10.5 mouse uNK cell subsets was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Early implantation sites from mice lacking expression of either receptor were examined histologically. Gd10.5 uNK cell subsets, separated by reactivity to Dolichos biflorus agglutinin lectin, differed in relative transcript abundance for Ahr and Ncr1. Quantitative histology revealed that, in comparison to C57BL/6 controls, implant sites from gd10.5 Ahr(-/-) and gd6.5-12.5 UkCa:B6.Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp) mice had normal uNK cell abundance but the uNK cells were smaller than normal and unable to trigger spiral arterial remodeling. Whole mount immunohistochemistry comparisons of viable, gd6.5-8.5 Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp) and C57BL/6 implant sites revealed deficits in implant site angiogenesis and conceptus growth in Ncr1(Gfp/Gfp). In mice, activation of AHR and of NCR1 by endogenous, as yet undefined ligands, contributes to uNK cell activation/maturation and angiogenic functions during early to mid-gestation pregnancy. MHC-independent activation of uNK cells also likely makes critical contributions to human pregnancy success.Placenta 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2013.06.004 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The decidual reaction and the formation of new vessels in the uterus are two crucial processes during embryo implantation. Previously, we observed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) increases cyclooxygenase-2 derived - prostaglandin E2 production during implantation in the rat uterus and that it augments the expression of decidualization (IGFBP-1) and vascularization (IL-10) markers. Both cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) are known enzymes involved in these processes. Thus, we became interested in studying which factors contribute to LPA receptor-specific role during the decidual and the vascular reaction at implantation. We adopted a pharmacological approach in vitro incubating the uterus from rats on day 5 of gestation (day of implantation) with LPA, DGPP (a highly selective antagonist of LPA3, an LPA receptor) and cyclooxygenase and NOS selective and non-selective inhibitors. We determined NOS activity, prostaglandin E2 production and IGFBP-1 and IL-10 expression to evaluate decidualization and vascularization. We observed that LPA augmented the activity of the inducible NOS isoform through LPA1/LPA3. Inducible NOS activity participated in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 increase stimulated by LPA. Also, cyclooxygenase-2 derived prostaglandins mediated LPA-stimulatory action on NOS activity. Both cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NOS mediated LPA effect on IGFBP-1 and IL-10 expression. These results suggest the participation of LPA/LPA3 in the production of crucial molecules involved in vascularization and decidualization, two main processes that prepare the uterine milieu for embryo invasion during implantation.Placenta 06/2013; 34(9). DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2013.06.001 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human IL-22 producing RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILC22) and conventional NK (cNK) cells are present in secondary lymphoid tissues. Both have an immunophenotype corresponding to stage III NK progenitors (CD56(+/-)CD117(high)CD94(-)). Using an in vitro differentiation and primary human tissues, we investigated their developmental relationships. cNK cells showed a CD56(+)CD117(+)CD7(+/-)LFA-1(high) phenotype and expressed surface receptors, cytokines and transcription factors found on mature cNK cells. In contrast, ILC22 cells were contained within the CD56(+)CD117(high)CD94(-)CD7(-)LFA-1(-) fraction and produced IL-22, IL-8 and GM-CSF. Although ILC22 cells expressed NKp44 and CD161, they lacked most other NK receptors, NK-associated transcription factors (T-bet and Eomes) and were incapable of IFN-γ production or cytotoxic responses. The vast majority of purified CD56(+)CD117(+)CD7(+/-)LFA-1(-) remained as ILC22 cells and never became cNK cells. In the absence of IL-15, CD34(+) cells showed a complete block in cNK differentiation and instead gave rise to a CD56(+) population that were ILC22 cells. Conversely, in the absence of IL-7 and SCF, cNK cells were generated but ILC22 cells showed minimal differentiation. Thus, while human ILC22 cells and cNK progenitors have a phenotype that overlaps with stage III NK progenitors, they have unique cytokine requirements and can be distinguished by LFA-1 expression.Blood 01/2013; 121(12). DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-07-440099 · 9.78 Impact Factor