Nutrition and nail disease.
ABSTRACT The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the nail unit (eg, hyponychium, nail bed, proximal nail fold, and matrix) and anatomic components not part of the nail unit (eg, lateral nail folds, nail plate, and eponychium). The function of each nail structure will also be presented. The chemical profile of the normal nail plate is reviewed with a discussion of its keratin content (hair type keratin vs epithelial type keratin), sulfur content, and mineral composition, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and copper. The remainder will focus on nail manifestations seen in states of malnutrition. Virtually every nutritional deficiency can affect the growth of the nail in some manner. Finally, the discussion will include anecdotal use of nutritional and dietary supplements in the setting of brittle nail syndrome as well as a brief overview of biotin and its promising utility in the treatment of nail disorders.
SourceAvailable from: Marijn M Speeckaert[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess glycation of nail proteins as a tool in the diagnosis of diabetes. Glycation of nail proteins was assessed using a modified photometric nitroblue tetrazolium-based assay, which provides information about average glucose values of the last 6-9 months. Analysis is possible on 10 mg of nail clippings with a within-run coefficient of variation (CV) of 11%. The analyte is extremely stable. The reference range for glycated nail protein (0.55-3.60 μmol/g nail) increases upon ageing. In diabetics (n = 112), values for glycated nail protein are significantly higher (median: 4.07 μmol/g nail, IQR: 2.37-6.89 μmol/g nail, P < 0.0001) than in non-diabetics (n = 116). ROC analysis shows an AUC of 0.848 (specificity 93.1%; sensitivity 68.9%). This affordable method is a simple alternative for diagnosing diabetes in remote areas as the pre-analytical phase (including all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the sample is ready for testing) is extremely robust.Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2013; 19(1). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12218 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed.Health Education Research 04/2013; DOI:10.1093/her/cyt050 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of dietary behaviors and food consumption and their relation to oral health are significant public health issues. Women and men exhibit different dietary behaviors. Understanding the influences of dietary behaviors on oral health from the perspective of gender disparities, however, is limited. This article provides the intersections of dietary factors and oral-systemic health for which women are at greater risk than men. Topics include the effect of dietary choices on oral health disparities seen in female patients. Interventional strategies at the local and community level that are designed to influence the balance between dietary habits and oral-systemic health are discussed.Dental clinics of North America 04/2013; 57(2):211-31. DOI:10.1016/j.cden.2013.01.004