Validity of average, minimum, and maximum end-of-day recall assessments of pain and fatigue.
ABSTRACT End-of-day (EOD) diary assessments of symptoms have the potential to reduce recall bias associated with longer recall periods, and therefore be useful for generating accurate patient reported outcomes (PROs). In this report we examine the relative validity of diary questions about the experience of daily pain and fatigue, including several questions about experience for the entire day and questions about minimum and maximum daily levels, with previously collected data. Validity estimates are based on comparisons of EOD reports with momentary recordings of pain and fatigue from the same days. One hundred and six participants with rheumatologic diseases yielded 2852 days for analysis. Differences in levels as assessed by EOD and momentary reports were small (just a few points), although in many instances were significantly different. Correlational analyses indicated that "how much," "how intense," and "on average" EOD questions were more strongly associated with momentary reports (rs=0.85-0.90 for pain and 0.81-0.83 for fatigue) than were minimum and maximum questions (rs=0.73-0.80 for pain and 0.67-0.75 for fatigue). Overall, the pain measures had higher EOD-momentary correspondence than the fatigue measures. Analyses of difference scores between EOD and momentary reports confirmed the better correspondence of the average questions compared with minimum and maximum questions. There was little evidence of individual differences in level and correspondence analyses. The implication of these results is that over-the-day diary measures may yield superior PROs than those based on minimum or maximum daily levels.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Joan E Broderick, Mar 24, 2014
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Esophageal symptoms often co-occur. A validated self-report measure encompassing multiple esophageal symptoms is necessary to determine their frequency and severity both independently and in association with each other. Such a questionnaire could streamline the diagnostic process and guide patient management. We aimed to develop an integrative measure that provides a clinical 'snapshot' of common esophageal symptoms. Internal reliability and content validity of a 38-item self-report Esophageal Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ), measuring the frequency and severity of typical esophageal symptoms using Likert-rating scales were assessed in 211 patients presenting to gastroenterology and ENT outpatient tertiary care clinics. Reproducibility, concurrent and predictive validity were evaluated using the reduced-item ESQ. The 38-item ESQ had high internal reliability. Principal component analyses and item reduction methods identified three components, to which 30 of 38 items contributed significantly, providing 59% of total variance. The test-retest correlations were moderate-to-strong for 24 of 30 new items (r(s) ≥ 0.44, P < 0.05). The resultant subscales measuring dysphagia (ESQ-D), globus (ESQ-G), and reflux (ESQ-R) compared well against concurrent physician's 'working' diagnosis (odds ratio 1.04-1.09). The receiver operating characteristics were adequate-to-good for ESQ-D (area under the curve [AUC]= 0.87) and ESQ-G (AUC = 0.74), but poor for ESQ-R (AUC = 0.61) although it matched the content of the validated Reflux Disease Questionnaire. The brief 30-item ESQ shows good internal reliability and content validity as a summary of the extent of dysphagia, globus and reflux symptoms. As a tool measuring more than one esophageal symptom, ESQ could guide patient management by indicating which of the coexisting symptoms needs to be addressed first.Diseases of the Esophagus 05/2011; 24(8):550-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2050.2011.01202.x · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose several different patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from momentary, real-time collection of symptom data. In addition to the mean of momentary reports of symptoms, other types of summaries can reflect different aspects of the symptom experience. With secondary analyses of two studies of patients with chronic pain assessed with real-time methods, we demonstrate principles for developing outcomes that summarize symptom experience during a 1-week period. These studies focused on pain intensity, which is used to demonstrate methods for creating summary momentary measures. Analyses from the first study (Pain 2008;139:146-57) yielded outcome measures based on the mean, median, 90th percentile, maximum, standard deviation, proportion of reports with no pain, proportion of reports with pain more than 50 (on a 0- to 100-point scale), and time-contingent measures. The second study examined the performance of these measures (and the mean) in a longitudinal study, in which some patients changed treatment (n = 78), making pain reduction likely, whereas others had no treatment change (n = 27). The measure that best discriminated the groups was the proportion of momentary reports without pain (effect size = 0.50), closely followed by the mean of all reports (effect size = 0.45). Most measures also correlated with patients' global impression of their change (between 0.39 and 0.55, except for standard deviation [0.13]). These analyses suggest that momentary symptom data can be useful for developing new PROs that reflect symptom experience other than the mean. They highlight knowledge gleaned from real-time studies, which deepens our understanding of symptoms by demonstrating which changes in symptoms are associated with overall perceived change.Psychosomatic Medicine 05/2012; 74(4):387-97. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182571faa · 4.09 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. To evaluate and compare the validity and reliability of individual and composite recall pain intensity measures. Design. Secondary analyses using data from a published 14-day open-label crossover clinical trial comparing two active treatments. Setting. Multiple settings. Participants. Fifty-two adults with a history of chronic cancer pain. Measures. Recall ratings of least, worst, and average pain during the past 2 days; composite score representing recalled characteristic pain in the past 2 days; and daily diary ratings of pain intensity from which "actual" least, worst, and average pain scores were derived. Results. Recall ratings of least and average pain, and a composite score representing recalled characteristic pain were accurate (differed no more than three points from "actual" scores on a 0-100 scale). Although the recall rating of worst pain significantly (P < 0.05) overestimated actual worst pain, the differences were minor (i.e., seven to eight points on a 0-100 scale). All of the recall measures demonstrated validity via their strong associations with the measures of actual pain intensity. The recall measures also demonstrated excellent test-retest stability, although the diary-derived measures tended to be more stable than the recall measures did. The composite measure of recalled characteristic pain demonstrated a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Conclusions. Individual recall ratings and a composite score representing recalled characteristic pain intensity are reliable and valid measures of actual pain in patients with cancer. The findings support their use as outcome measures in clinical trials.Pain Medicine 08/2012; 13(10):1284-91. DOI:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01470.x · 2.24 Impact Factor