Safety and immunogenicity of single dose of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine among non/partially immune children against diphtheria and/or tetanus, Hyderabad, India, 2007.
ABSTRACT In Hyderabad, India, diphtheria is common among children aged 5-19 years. On account of low coverage of diphtheria vaccine boosters recommended under the universal immunization programme, a large proportion of children were susceptible/partially immune against diphtheria and/or tetanus. We evaluated immunogenicity and safety of single dose of indigenously developed tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine (diphtheria-toxoid < or =5 Lf) among 483 school children from Hyderabad aged 7-17 years and susceptible/partially immune against diphtheria and/or tetanus. Serological testing 6 weeks after vaccination indicated that vaccine was highly immunogenic with >96% sero-protected against both antigens. The immune response observed indicated a booster response to previously acquired immunity. Administration of additional dose of Td vaccine to the older school children and replacing the tetanus toxoid vaccine with Td in the school health programme would considerably reduce diphtheria burden in Hyderabad.
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ABSTRACT: During 2003-2006, diphtheria rates in Hyderabad, India, were higher among persons 5-19 years of age, women, and Muslims than among other groups. Vaccine was efficacious among those who received >/=4 doses. The proportion of the population receiving boosters was low, especially among Muslims. We recommend increasing booster dose coverage.Emerging Infectious Diseases 07/2008; 14(7):1144-6. · 6.79 Impact Factor
- Journal of Infection. 02/2009;
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ABSTRACT: Epidemic diphtheria reemerged in the Russian Federation in 1990 and spread to all Newly Independent States (NIS) and Baltic States by the end of 1994. Factors contributing to the epidemic included increased susceptibility of both children and adults, socioeconomic instability, population movement, deteriorating health infrastructure, initial shortages of vaccine, and delays in implementing control measures. In 1995, aggressive control strategies were implemented, and since then, all affected countries have reported decreases of diphtheria; however, continued efforts by national health authorities and international assistance are still needed. The legacy of this epidemic includes a reexamination of the global diphtheria control strategy, new laboratory techniques for diphtheria diagnosis and analysis, and a model for future public health emergencies in the successful collaboration of multiple international partners. The reemergence of diphtheria warns of an immediate threat of other epidemics in the NIS and Baltic States and a longer-term potential for the reemergence of vaccine-preventable diseases elsewhere. Continued investment in improved vaccines, control strategies, training, and laboratory techniques is needed.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2000; 181 Suppl 1:S10-22. · 5.85 Impact Factor