Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes.
ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 1 diabetic individuals, and to evaluate whether NAFLD is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
All patients with diagnosed type 1 diabetes with available liver ultrasound data (n=250), who regularly attended our diabetes clinic, were enrolled. Main study measures were detection of NAFLD (by patient history and liver ultrasound) and asymptomatic/symptomatic CVD (by patient history, chart review, electrocardiogram, and echo-Doppler scanning of carotid and lower limb arteries).
The prevalence of NAFLD was 44.4%, and NAFLD was the most common cause (69.8%) of hepatic steatosis on ultrasound examination. Patients with NAFLD had a remarkably higher (p<0.001) age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of coronary (10.8% vs. 1.1%), cerebrovascular (37.3% vs. 5.5%) and peripheral (24.5% vs. 2.5%) vascular disease than their counterparts without NAFLD. In logistic regression analysis, NAFLD was associated with prevalent CVD (as composite endpoint), independently of age, sex, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A(1c), smoking history, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and medication use (adjusted odds ratio 7.36, 95% confidence intervals 1.60-34.3, p<0.01).
Our findings suggest that NAFLD is very common in type 1 diabetic subjects and is associated, independently of several confounding factors, with a higher prevalence of CVD. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether NAFLD predicts incident CVD events in type 1 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease represent a serious threat to the health of the population worldwide. Although overall adiposity and particularly visceral adiposity are established risk factors for these diseases, in the recent years fatty liver emerged as an additional and independent factor. However, the pathophysiology of fat accumulation in the liver and the cross-talk of fatty liver with other tissues involved in metabolism in humans are not fully understood. Here we discuss the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation, particularly the roles of body fat distribution, nutrition, exercise, genetics, and gene-environment interaction. Furthermore, the effects of fatty liver on glucose and lipid metabolism, specifically via induction of subclinical inflammation and secretion of humoral factors, are highlighted. Finally, new aspects regarding the dissociation of fatty liver and insulin resistance are addressed.Endocrine Reviews 09/2008; 29(7):939-60. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is a lack of information on associations between NAFLD and microvascular complications of diabetes. We assessed the associations between NAFLD and both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and retinopathy in a large cohort of type 2 diabetic individuals using a cross-sectional design. Prevalence rates of retinopathy (by ophthalmoscopy) and CKD (defined as overt proteinuria and/or estimated GFR <or= 60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)) were assessed in 2,103 type 2 diabetic individuals who were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease and viral hepatitis. NAFLD was ascertained by patient history, blood sampling and liver ultrasound. NAFLD patients had higher (p<0.001) age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of both non-proliferative (39 vs 34%) and proliferative/laser-treated retinopathy (11 vs 5%), and CKD (15 vs 9%) than counterparts without NAFLD. In logistic regression analysis, NAFLD was associated with increased rates of CKD (odds ratio 1.87; 95% CI 1.3-4.1, p=0.020) and proliferative/laser-treated retinopathy (odds ratio 1.75; 1.1-3.7, p=0.031) independently of age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes duration, HbA(1c), lipids, smoking status and medications use. Our findings suggest that NAFLD is associated with an increased prevalence of CKD and proliferative/laser-treated retinopathy in type 2 diabetic individuals independently of numerous baseline confounding factors. Further studies are required to confirm the reproducibility of these results and to evaluate whether NAFLD contributes to the development or progression of CKD and retinopathy.Diabetologia 03/2008; 51(3):444-50. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) in a large cohort of patients with Type 1 diabetes and to examine the clinical correlations and causes. Methods Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively recruited and ALT, glycated haemoglobin and lipid profile were measured. Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited as a comparison group. with abnormal ALT were investigated for underlying causes. Prevalence of abnormal ALT was analysed at three separate cut-offs and multivariable analysis used to identify independent risk factors. Nine hundred and eleven with Type 1 diabetes and 963 with Type 2 diabetes were included. The prevalence of elevated ALT was dependent on the cut-off value: > 30 IU/l in males and > 19 IU/l in females, > 50 and > 63 IU/l was 34.5, 4.3 and 1.9%, respectively, in Type 1 diabetes and 51.4, 8.2 and 3.7%, respectively, in Type 2 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes an elevated ALT was associated with worse glycaemic control, age > 55 years and elevated triglycerides. Investigation of these patients revealed a cause in 43.6% of patients, predominantly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT is not uncommon in Type 1 diabetes and is associated with NAFLD-related risk factors. Patients with Type 1 diabetes and elevated ALT should be investigated as significant abnormalities may be found which are amenable to interventions.Diabetic Medicine 12/2009; 26(12):1235-41. · 3.24 Impact Factor