Article

Chromosomes tell half of the story: the correlation between karyotype rearrangements and genetic diversity in sedges, a group with holocentric chromosomes.

The Morton Arboretum, 4100 Illinois Route 53, Lisle, IL 60532-1293, USA.
Molecular Ecology (Impact Factor: 6.28). 08/2010; 19(15):3124-38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04741.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chromosome rearrangements may affect the rate and patterns of gene flow within species, through reduced fitness of structural heterozygotes or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. While the effects of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow have been studied in a wide range of organisms with monocentric chromosomes, the effects of rearrangements in holocentric chromosomes--chromosomes in which centromeric activity is distributed along the length of the chromosome--have not. We collected chromosome number and molecular genetic data in Carex scoparia, an eastern North American plant species with holocentric chromosomes and highly variable karyotype (2n = 56-70). There are no deep genetic breaks within C. scoparia that would suggest cryptic species differentiation. However, genetic distance between individuals is positively correlated with chromosome number difference and geographic distance. A positive correlation is also found between chromosome number and genetic distance in the western North American C. pachystachya (2n = 74-81). These findings suggest that geographic distance and the number of karyotype rearrangements separating populations affect the rate of gene flow between those populations. This is the first study to quantify the effects of holocentric chromosome rearrangements on the partitioning of intraspecific genetic variance.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
140 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Similar to how the model of centromere drive explains the size and complexity of centromeres in monocentrics (organisms with localized centromeres), our model of holokinetic drive is consistent with the divergent evolution of chromosomal size and number in holocentrics (organisms with non-localized centromeres) exhibiting holokinetic meiosis (holokinetics). Holokinetic drive is proposed to facilitate chromosomal fission and/or repetitive DNA removal (or any segmental deletion) when smaller homologous chromosomes are preferentially inherited or chromosomal fusion and/or repetitive DNA proliferation (or any segmental duplication) when larger homologs are preferred. The hypothesis of holokinetic drive is supported primarily by the negative correlation between chromosome number and genome size that is documented in holokinetic lineages. The supporting value of two older cross-experiments on holokinetic structural heterozygotes (the rush Luzula elegans and butterflies of the genus Antheraea) that indicate the presence of size-preferential homolog transmission via female meiosis for holokinetic drive is discussed, along with the potential negative consequences of holokinetic drive in comparison with centromere drive. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Evolution 04/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus.
    Hereditas 06/2013; 150(2-3):26-37. · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Supplementary information available for this article at http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140905/ncomms5737/suppinfo/ncomms5737_S1.html
    Nature Communications 09/2014; 5. · 10.02 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from