This article reviews published studies regarding effects of ethanol intake on lipoprotein levels and function as they relate to atherosclerosis, with special emphasis on recent publications in the past 2 years.
Some recent studies have explored novel mechanisms of ethanol on atherogenesis via effects on HDL composition and function. Other studies have focused on changes in levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, and other factors such as inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2). Other areas of emphasis have been the effects within specific populations and between genders, as well as contributions of genetic polymorphisms in prediction of response to ethanol. Surprisingly, results of recent studies are often at odds with prior, seemingly well established findings.
The association between moderate ethanol consumption and favorable changes in lipoproteins and lipoprotein-related factors in atherosclerosis continues to become better established with the publication of new studies in this field. Continued progress is being achieved in understanding the well established link between moderate intake and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, it remains difficult to implement these findings in clinical practice due to the ongoing lack of randomized, blinded clinical trial data, and the well known hazards of excess ethanol consumption.
"Onat et al.  also showed that alcohol consumption was positively associated with TG, LDL-C, and ApoB in men and negatively correlated with TG and/or not correlated with LDL-C and ApoB in women. Nevertheless, another research indicated that the effects of alcohol consumption on LDL-C appear to vary by specific patient types or patterns of alcohol intake, and sex as well as genetic variants . Consequently, the joint effects of different dietary habits, lifestyles, and environmental factors probably further modify the association of genetic variations and serum lipid levels in our study populations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions.
"The alcohol intake of 60 g/day increases the TG levels by about 0.19 mg/dl per 1 gram of alcohol consumed 11. Although the effects of alcohol consumption on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) appear to vary by specific patient types or patterns of alcohol intake, and perhaps by population and sex, this topic has been the focus of much recent research 12. A recent study in older Italian subjects (65-84 years) has found that alcohol consumption increases serum LDL-C levels 13. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgroud: Both alcohol consumption and the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene polymorphism modulate serum lipid levels, but their interactions on serum lipid profiles are still unknown. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels.
Methods: Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G in 1352 unrelated subjects (785 non-drinkers and 567 drinkers) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions between PCSK9 E670G genotypes and alcohol consumption on serum lipid parameters were detected by using a factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders.
Results: The levels of serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.01 for all), whereas the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB were lower in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P < 0.001 for all). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of PCSK9 E670G were not different between non-drinkers and drinkers (P > 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype in non-drinkers had higher serum LDL-C levels than the subjects with AG genotype, whereas the subjects with AG genotype in drinkers had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with AA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The effects of alcohol consumption on TC and LDL-C levels depended upon genotypes, the subjects with AA genotype had lower serum TC and LDL-C levels in drinkers than in non-drinkers.
Conclusions: Alcohol consumption can modify the effects of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism on serum TC and LDL-C levels. The subjects with AA genotype of the PCSK9 E670G benefit more from alcohol consumption than the subjects with AG genotype in decreasing serum TC and LDL-C levels.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2013; 10(2):124-132. DOI:10.7150/ijms.5296 · 2.00 Impact Factor
"Another recent study of Turks also found increases in LDL-C, as well as in ApoB and TG, with alcohol in men, while women had decreased TG and no change in LDL-C or ApoB with alcohol . In addition, a greater amount of alcohol intake was also associated with higher values for blood pressure [57,59], TG [58,60], HDL-C  and waist circumference . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a key protein for intestinal cholesterol transportation. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPC1L1 gene have been associated with cholesterol absorption and serum lipid levels. The present study was undertaken to explore the possible association of NPC1L1 rs2072183 1735 C > G SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations.
Genotyping of the rs2072183 SNP was performed in 688 subjects of Mulao and 738 participants of Han Chinese. The interactions between NPC1L1 1735 C > G polymorphism and several environmental factors on serum lipid phenotypes were tested using the factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders.
The frequency of G allele was lower in Mulao than in Han (29.72% vs. 37.26%, P < 0.001). The frequency of CC, CG and GG genotypes was 49.85%, 40.84% and 9.31% in Mulao, and 39.30%, 46.88% and 13.82% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) B and the ratio of ApoAI/ApoB in Han but not in Mulao were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with GG and CG genotypes had higher LDL-C, ApoB levels and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio than the subjects with CC genotype. Subgroup analysis showed that the G allele carriers in Han had higher total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and ApoB levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Mulao had higher TC and LDL-C levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. Serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio were correlated with genotypes in Han males (P < 0.05) but not in females. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors. The genotypes of rs2072183 SNP were interacted with gender or cigarette smoking to influence serum TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao, whereas the genotypes of rs2072183 SNP were interacted with several environmental factors to influence all seven lipid traits in Han (P < 0.05-0.01).
The present study suggests that the rs2072183 SNP in NPC1L1 gene and its association with serum lipid profiles are different between the Mulao and Han populations. The difference in serum lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different rs2072183 SNP or NPC1L1 gene-environmental interactions.
Lipids in Health and Disease 05/2012; 11(1):61. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-11-61 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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