Severe congenital neutropenia resulting from G6PC3 deficiency with increased neutrophil CXCR4 expression and myelokathexis

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 10/2010; 116(15):2793-802. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-01-265942
Source: PubMed


Mutations in more than 15 genes are now known to cause severe congenital neutropenia (SCN); however, the pathologic mechanisms of most genetic defects are not fully defined. Deficiency of G6PC3, a glucose-6-phosphatase, causes a rare multisystem syndrome with SCN first described in 2009. We identified a family with 2 children with homozygous G6PC3 G260R mutations, a loss of enzymatic function, and typical syndrome features with the exception that their bone marrow biopsy pathology revealed abundant neutrophils consistent with myelokathexis. This pathologic finding is a hallmark of another type of SCN, WHIM syndrome, which is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CXCR4, a chemokine receptor and known neutrophil bone marrow retention factor. We found markedly increased CXCR4 expression on neutrophils from both our G6PC3-deficient patients and G6pc3(-/-) mice. In both patients, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment normalized CXCR4 expression and neutrophil counts. In G6pc3(-/-) mice, the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 rapidly reversed neutropenia. Thus, myelokathexis associated with abnormally high neutrophil CXCR4 expression may contribute to neutropenia in G6PC3 deficiency and responds well to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

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    • "Some patients with G6PC3 deficiency paradoxically demonstrate normal or hypercellularity of the bone marrow. McDermott et al. studied such a sibling pair and showed increased expression of CXCR4 in neutrophils [20]. They proposed that in such patients, stress induces overexpression of CXCR4 in patients leading to reduced egression or premature return of granulocytes to the bone marrow for destruction. "
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    ABSTRACT: The G6PC3 gene encodes the ubiquitously expressed glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme (G-6-Pase β or G-6-Pase 3 or G6PC3). Bi-allelic G6PC3 mutations cause a multi-system autosomal recessive disorder of G6PC3 deficiency (also called severe congenital neutropenia type 4, MIM 612541). To date, at least 57 patients with G6PC3 deficiency have been described in the literature. G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia, recurrent bacterial infections, intermittent thrombocytopenia in many patients, a prominent superficial venous pattern and a high incidence of congenital cardiac defects and uro-genital anomalies. The phenotypic spectrum of the condition is wide and includes rare manifestations such as maturation arrest of the myeloid lineage, a normocellular bone marrow, myelokathexis, lymphopaenia, thymic hypoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, primary pulmonary hypertension, endocrine abnormalities, growth retardation, minor facial dysmorphism, skeletal and integument anomalies amongst others. Dursun syndrome is part of this extended spectrum. G6PC3 deficiency can also result in isolated non-syndromic severe neutropenia. G6PC3 mutations in result in reduced enzyme activity, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, increased rates of apoptosis of affected cells and dysfunction of neutrophil activity. In this review we demonstrate that loss of function in missense G6PC3 mutations likely results from decreased enzyme stability. The condition can be diagnosed by sequencing the G6PC3 gene. A number of G6PC3 founder mutations are known in various populations and a possible genotype-phenotype relationship also exists. G6PC3 deficiency should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in any patient with unexplained congenital neutropenia. Treatment with G-CSF leads to improvement in neutrophil numbers, prevents infections and improves quality of life. Mildly affected patients can be managed with prophylactic antibiotics. Untreated G6PC3 deficiency can be fatal. Echocardiogram, renal and pelvic ultrasound scans should be performed in all cases of suspected or confirmed G6PC3 deficiency. Routine assessment should include biochemical profile, growth profile and monitoring for development of varicose veins or venous ulcers.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 06/2013; 8(1):84. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-8-84 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "As adolescents, they were diagnosed with intermittent thrombocytopenia and a platelet aggregation defect. NC1 developed pulmonary hypertension in her mid-30’s and is the 5th reported SCN4 patient who developed this complication [1,5,10] (Table 1). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that long-term complications may be shared between individuals with mutations in G6PC3 and G6PC1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Severe congenital neutropenia type 4 (SCN4) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the third subunit of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC3). Its core features are congenital neutropenia and a prominent venous skin pattern, and affected individuals have variable birth defects. Oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in SLC45A2. Methods We report a sister and brother from Newfoundland, Canada with complex phenotypes. The sister was previously reported by Cullinane et al., 2011. We performed homozygosity mapping, next generation sequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing to identify mutations that cause the phenotype in this family. We have also summarized clinical data from 49 previously reported SCN4 cases with overlapping phenotypes and interpret the medical histories of these siblings in the context of the literature. Results The siblings’ phenotype is due in part to a homozygous mutation in G6PC3, [c.829C > T, p.Gln277X]. Their ages are 38 and 37 years respectively and they are the oldest SCN4 patients published to date. Both presented with congenital neutropenia and later developed Crohn disease. We suggest that the latter is a previously unrecognized SCN4 manifestation and that not all affected individuals have an intellectual disability. The sister also has a homozygous mutation in SLC45A2, which explains her severe oculocutaneous hypopigmentation. Her brother carried one SLC45A2 mutation and was diagnosed with “partial OCA” in childhood. Conclusions This family highlights that apparently novel syndromes can in fact be caused by two known autosomal recessive disorders.
    BMC Medical Genetics 11/2012; 13(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-13-111 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    • "Although infection susceptibility is on the contrary almost always present, severe infections are rare. Finally, myelokathexis is not pathognomomic of WS, as it is observed in other situations such as in neutropenia linked to the glucose 6 phosphatase, catalytic subunit 3 (G6PC3)[57], CXCR2 loss-of-function mutations [58] or in gastric cancer [59]. In addition, for three patients from this study, BM smears were initially described as showing only an absence of myeloid blockage, while we identified the typical multi-lobular nuclei of myelokathexis only at the time of the central review. "
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    ABSTRACT: WHIM syndrome (WS), a rare congenital neutropenia due to mutations of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-induced Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial Infections and Myelokathexis. The long term follow up of eight patients highlights the clinical heterogeneity of this disease as well as the main therapeutic approaches and remaining challenges in the light of the recent development of new CXCR4 inhibitors. This study aims to describe the natural history of WS based on a French cohort of 8 patients. We have reviewed the clinical, biological and immunological features of patients with WS enrolled into the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry. We identified four pedigrees with WS comprised of eight patients and one foetus. Estimated incidence for WS was of 0.23 per million births. Median age at the last visit was 29 years. Three pedigrees encompassing seven patients and the fetus displayed autosomal dominant heterozygous mutations of the CXCR4 gene, while one patient presented a wild-type CXCR4 gene. Two subjects exhibited congenital conotruncal heart malformations. In addition to neutropenia and myelokathexis, all patients presented deep monocytopenia and lymphopenia. Seven patients presented repeated bacterial Ears Nose Throat as well as severe bacterial infections that were curable with antibiotics. Four patients with late onset prophylaxis developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two patients reported atypical mycobacteria infections which in one case may have been responsible for one patient’s death due to liver failure at the age of 40.6 years. HPV-related disease manifested in five subjects and progressed as invasive vulvar carcinoma with a fatal course in one patient at the age of 39.5 years. In addition, two patients developed T cell lymphoma skin cancer and basal cell carcinoma at the age of 38 and 65 years. Continuous prophylactic anti-infective measures, when started in early childhood, seem to effectively prevent further bacterial infections and the consequent development of COPD. Long-term follow up is needed to evaluate the effect of early anti-HPV targeted prophylaxis on the development of skin and genital warts.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 09/2012; 7(1):71. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-7-71 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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