Clock drawing performance in a community-dwelling population: Normative data for Japanese subjects
ABSTRACT The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is commonly used for cognitive screening. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for the CDT for the Japanese community-dwelling population, using the method of Freedman. This study also investigates the effect of demographic factors on the performance of the subjects in this task.
We administered the CDT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to 873 volunteers. Using a multiple linear regression analysis, we found a gender difference in the free-drawn condition.
A detrimental effect of age was observed in the free-drawn and pre-drawn conditions. The years of education affected the CDT in the examiner 2 condition. Correlations of the MMSE with each of the five conditions of the CDT were significant, further validating this test.
Our study provides preliminary normative data for the Japanese population stratified by the age and level of education. However, interpretation of our results was hampered by the large variability in the performance of the subjects and the possibility of a selection bias. Thus, additional studies will be necessary to further characterise the CDT scores for the Japanese community.
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ABSTRACT: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a valid screening tool for the evaluation of cognitive decline. This study aimed to compute standardized norms for the Freedman version of the CDT in a population of 248 healthy Italian individuals aged from 20 to 89 years. The effects of age, education, and gender on performance were assessed. Three conditions were administered: free-drawn clock (FD), which required participants to draw the contour, numbers, hands, and center of the clock; predrawn clock (PD), in which numbers, hands, and center had to be included in a predrawn contour; examiner-drawn clock (ED), in which only hands and center had to be inserted in a template including a predrawn contour and numbers. Scores for each of the single conditions and a total score were calculated. Age had no effect on the FD condition, whereas a significant effect of age was found for the PD and ED conditions and the total score. Gender and education had no influence on any of the scores. Correction grids, cutoffs, and equivalent scores were computed. Standardized norms for the Freedman version of the CDT were collected in a large sample of healthy individuals. No adjustments were required for scores on the free-drawn condition, whereas raw scores on the predrawn and examiner-drawn conditions and the total score needed adjustments to account for age effects. The availability of standardized norms for this version of the CDT could increase the use of this comprehensive tool in the detection of dementia.Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 11/2011; 33(9):982-8. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2011.589373 · 2.16 Impact Factor
Chapter: Clock Drawing Test[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) has long been recognized as a useful component for the screening of cognitive disorders. It provides a user-friendly visual representation of cognitive functioning that is simple and rapidly administered, making it appealing to clinicians and patients alike. The ease of use and wide range of cognitive abilities required to successfully complete the CDT has made this test an increasingly popular cognitive screening measure in both research and clinical settings. This chapter summarizes and compares the numerous CDT scoring methods that have been described in the literature. Also, psychometric properties are presented for the CDT when used for cognitive screening in a variety of neurologic conditions, including: Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, vascular disease, schizophrenia, stroke and traumatic brain injury. Cultural, ethnic and educational considerations for the CDT are also discussed.Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Practical Approach, Edited by A. J. Larner, 07/2012: chapter 5: pages 80-105; Springer., ISBN: 1447124510
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ABSTRACT: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is an evaluation of cognitive function that can be completed with more cases. However, there are few studies that compare which factor, disease or aging, is a better determinant of performance on the BACS. The present study aimed to investigate the influences of disease and aging on BACS performance in schizophrenic patients using subjects with a wide range of ages. Schizophrenic patients (n = 165) and a comparison group (n = 171) were recruited as subjects. All participants completed the Japanese language version of the BACS (BACS-J), and the influences of disease and aging on performance in the BACS were examined with the use of multiple regression analysis. There was a significant influence of diagnosis and level of education on all six tasks of the BACS and the performance and composite scores. In addition, age was found to influence five tasks and the composite score, the duration of illness influenced four tasks and the composite score, and gender influenced one task and the composite score. The present study suggests that performance on the BACS was impaired not only by disease but also by level of education and aging.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 08/2013; 9:1203-8. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S43280 · 2.15 Impact Factor