Severe Electrolyte Disturbances After Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Oxaliplatin Versus Mitomycin C
ABSTRACT Oxaliplatin (OX) is increasingly used for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPC) for patients with peritoneal metastases. Our aim was to review electrolyte disturbances and complications after HIPC with oxaliplatin (OX) versus mitomycin C (MMC).
We included patients enrolled in single-institution prospective clinical trials who underwent cytoreductive surgery and HIPC with MMC or OX. We reviewed patient demographics, pathology, perioperative course, HIPC administration, and postoperative electrolyte disturbances. Measured postoperative sodium values were corrected for systemic hyperglycemia using the formula: (measured Na(+)) × [(glucose - 100/100) × 1.6].
From January 2002 to April 2009 we performed 80 HIPC procedures. A total of 60 patients (75%) received MMC (dose range 12.5-50 mg/m(2)) carried in lactated ringers solution. There were 20 patients (25%) who received OX (dose range 300 × 400 mg/m(2)) carried in 5% dextrose solution. For patients receiving HIPC with OX, electrolyte disturbances were the most common complication. Compared with MMC, patients receiving OX had significant 24-h postoperative uncorrected hyponatremia (P < 0.001), corrected hyponatremia (P < 0.001), hyperglycemia (P < 0.001), and metabolic acidosis (P < 0.001). In the OX group, corrected (mean 130.5) and uncorrected (mean 127.4) sodium levels were significantly lower than preoperatively (mean 139.9, P < 0.001). The overall nonelectrolyte complication rate was 56.2%. (MMC n = 33, 55.0%; OX n = 12, 60%); the 30-day mortality rate was 0% in both groups.
Compared with MMC, HIPC with OX was associated with significant but predictable electrolyte disturbances; however, these electrolyte disturbances were not associated with higher overall complication rates. Close monitoring with early correction is imperative to maximize perioperative care. Further studies are needed to provide mechanistic insight.
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ABSTRACT: Anesthesiologists face several perioperative challenges when patients need cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion. To adequately care for these patients, anesthesiologists must understand the goals and objectives of the operation in addition to having a basic knowledge of the chemotherapeutic drugs that are frequently used. Optimal anesthetic management of patients treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion requires control of a complex interplay of physiologic mechanisms, including hyperthermia, abdominal hypertension, electrolyte abnormalities, coagulopathies, increased cardiac index, oxygen consumption, and decreased systemic vascular resistance. As this surgery continues to gain popularity among oncologic surgeons, further studies that clearly define the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and end points of efficacy need to be performed to elucidate optimal perioperative management.Anesthesia and analgesia 03/2013; 116(4). DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182860fff · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To introduce a conceptual model detailing the physiologic contributions of malglycemia to cancer formation and increased morbidity and mortality. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, CINAHL®, and Cochrane databases, as well as Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer statistics. Multiple complex factors are associated with malignancy formation, proliferation, and outcomes for each individual. The authors present a model, termed the Malglycemia Orbit Model, that is analogous to an atom, centered on a core of individual factors, and surrounded by "orbits" containing cancer and related factors. Highlighted in this model is the role of malglycemia. Cancer formation and sequelae involve numerous multifaceted factors. One factor not well described or understood within the context of malignancies is glycemic status, most notably how malglycemia impacts cancer formation and risks for adverse outcomes. The atomic-structured malglycemia model describes this process. Among the many uncontrollable factors that contribute to cancer formation and adverse outcomes, malglycemia is one that is modifiable. Nurses are in a prime position to conduct research to enhance understanding and ultimately improve protocols for better glycemic control and, in effect, better outcomes for individuals with cancer.Oncology Nursing Forum 05/2012; 39(3):E275-87. DOI:10.1188/12.ONF.E275-E287 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Until 2004, we treated peritoneal carcinomatosis with cytoreductive surgery accompanied by perioperative systemic chemotherapy. From October 2004, we decided to initiate a hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) program for this condition. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of HIPEC on postoperative outcomes at a single institution performing a high volume of cancer operations. METHOD Sixty consecutive patients underwent cytoreductive surgery plus HIPEC (oxaliplatin; 460 mg/m2 in 2 L/m2) from October 1, 2004, through December 31, 2010. Usual perioperative factors were studied for 3 groups of patients who underwent HIPEC: 0 to 20 HIPEC procedures (period 1), 21 to 40 HIPEC procedures (period 2), and 41 to 60 HIPEC procedures (period 3). RESULTS The mean peritoneal carcinomatosis index was 9.6, the mean duration of surgery was 410.7 minutes, and the mean blood loss was 450.2 mL/L. Mortality and morbidity were 0% and 33%, respectively. Grade III/IV morbidity (P = .02), transfusion (P < .01), and reintervention rate (P = .04) significantly decreased during the 3 periods. No difference was seen between the 3 periods with regard to mean peritoneal carcinomatosis index, operative duration, blood loss, mortality, overall morbidity, length of hospital stay, and readmission. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of 26 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis originating from colorectal cancer were 100%, 51%, and 37%, respectively. The overall median survival was 39 months. CONCLUSIONS We observed a significant reduction of grade III/IV morbidity, perioperative transfusion, and reintervention rate after 20 procedures. The introduction of the HIPEC program was successful because of the surgical team's prior experience in cytoreductive and cancer operations.Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 10/2012; 147(10):919-23. DOI:10.1001/archsurg.2012.988 · 4.32 Impact Factor