Anemia and Patient Blood Management in Hip and Knee Surgery A Systematic Review of the Literature

Institute of Anesthesiology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 6.17). 08/2010; 113(2):482-95. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181e08e97
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A systematic search was conducted to determine the characteristics of perioperative anemia, its association with clinical outcomes, and the effects of patient blood management interventions on these outcomes in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. In patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty and hip fracture surgery, preoperative anemia was highly prevalent, ranging from 24 +/- 9% to 44 +/- 9%, respectively. Postoperative anemia was even more prevalent (51% and 87 +/- 10%, respectively). Perioperative anemia was associated with a blood transfusion rate of 45 +/- 25% and 44 +/- 15%, postoperative infections, poorer physical functioning and recovery, and increased length of hospital stay and mortality. Treatment of preoperative anemia with iron, with or without erythropoietin, and perioperative cell salvage decreased the need for blood transfusion and may contribute to improved patient outcomes. High-impact prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings and establish firm clinical guidelines.

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    ABSTRACT: Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of ‘functional’ iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated.
    Anaesthesia 01/2015; 70(s1). DOI:10.1111/anae.12918 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic red cell transfusion is a commonly used treatment to improve the oxygen carrying capacity of blood during the peri-operative period. Increasing arterial oxygen content by increasing haemoglobin does not necessarily increase tissue oxygen delivery or uptake. Although the evidence-base for red cell transfusion practice is incomplete, randomised studies across a range of clinical settings, including surgery, consistently support the restrictive use of red cells, with no evidence of benefit for maintaining patients at higher haemoglobin thresholds (liberal strategy). A recent meta-analysis of 7593 patients concluded that a restrictive transfusion strategy was associated with a reduced risk of healthcare-associated infections (pneumonia, mediastinitis, wound infection, sepsis) when compared with a liberal transfusion strategy. The degree to which the optimal haemoglobin concentration or transfusion trigger should be modified for patients with additional specific risk factors (e.g. ischaemic heart disease), remains less clear and requires further research. Although most clinical practice guidelines recommend restrictive use of red cells, and many blood transfusion services have seen marked falls in overall usage of red cells, the use of other blood components such as fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate has risen. In clinical practice, administration of fresh frozen plasma is usually guided by laboratory tests of coagulation, mainly prothrombin time, international normalised ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time, but the predictive value of these tests to predict bleeding is poor.
    Anaesthesia 01/2015; 70(s1). DOI:10.1111/anae.12893 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    02/2015; 2:3. DOI:10.3389/fsurg.2015.00003


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